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Guy Fagherazzi, Gaelle Gusto, Douae El Fatouhi, Francesca Romana Mancini, Beverley Balkau, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault and Fabrice Bonnet

Hypothesis

Previous work suggested no or inconsistent associations between components of work-related stress and type 2 diabetes risk, but suggested sex-specific differences should be further investigated, as women potentially had higher risks.

Methods

We analyzed data from 73 517 women, mostly teachers, from the E3N cohort study followed for 22 years (1992–2014), to study the association between mentally tiring work, used as a proxy of job demands, and type 2 diabetes risk. Univariate and multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals.

Results

A total of 4187 incident cases of type 2 diabetes cases were observed. There was a higher type 2 diabetes risk for women with a ‘Very mentally tiring work’ when compared to women with ‘Little or not mentally tiring work’ (HR = 1.21 (1.09–1.35)). This association was independent of unhealthy lifestyle and traditional metabolic factors. An interaction between mentally tiring work and BMI was detected (P < 0.0001), with a stronger association being observed in non-overweight women, HR = 1.26 (1.08–1.47) vs HR = 1.14 (0.98, 1.32), in overweight women.

Conclusions

We observed an increased risk of type 2 diabetes associated with mentally tiring work, used as a proxy of job demands. These observational results suggest the importance of taking into consideration the potential long-term metabolic impact of work-related stress for women working in a demanding environment. Increased support for such women should be investigated in intervention studies.

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Anne Marie Hannon, Triona O’Shea, Claire A Thompson, Mark J Hannon, Rosemary Dineen, Aftab Khattak, James Gibney, Domhnall J O’Halloran, Steven Hunter, Christopher J Thompson and Mark Sherlock

Pregnancy is rarely reported in acromegaly. Many patients are diagnosed in later life and younger patients may have subfertility due to hypopituitarism. We present a case series of 17 pregnancies in 12 women with acromegaly.

Twelve women with acromegaly who completed pregnancy were identified from centres involved in the Irish Pituitary Study. Eleven women had pituitary macroadenomas and one woman had a microadenoma. Only 5/17 pregnancies had optimal biochemical control of acromegaly preconception, as defined by IGF-1 concentration in the age-related reference level and plasma GH concentration of <2 μg/L. In 6/17 pregnancies, dopamine agonist treatment was continued during pregnancy; all other acromegaly treatments were discontinued during pregnancy.

Effect of pregnancy on acromegaly: No patient developed new visual field abnormalities, or symptoms suggestive of tumour expansion during pregnancy. In 9/12 patients, plasma IGF-1 concentrations that were elevated preconception normalised during pregnancy. There was a reduction in plasma IGF-1 concentrations, though not into the normal range, in a further two pregnancies.

Effect of acromegaly on pregnancy: 15 healthy babies were born at term; one patient underwent emergency C-section at 32 weeks for pre-eclampsia, and one twin pregnancy had an elective C-section at 35 weeks’ gestation. Blood pressure remained within normal limits in the remainder of the pregnancies. Gestational diabetes did not develop in any pregnancy.

Our data suggests that pregnancy in women with acromegaly is generally safe, from a maternal and foetal perspective. Furthermore, biochemical control tends to improve despite the withdrawal of somatostatin analogue therapy during pregnancy.

Open access

Guodong Xu, Dingyun You, Liping Wong, Donghui Duan, Fanqian Kong, Xiaohong Zhang, Jinshun Zhao, Wenhua Xing, Liyuan Han and Li Li

Objective

Previous studies have shown sex-specific differences in all-cause and CHD mortality in type 2 diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a global picture of the estimated influence of type 2 diabetes on the risk of all-cause and CHD mortality in women vs men.

Methods

We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published from their starting dates to Aug 7, 2018. The sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and their pooled ratio (women vs men) of all-cause and CHD mortality associated with type 2 diabetes were obtained through an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity.

Results

The 35 analyzed prospective cohort studies included 2 314 292 individuals, among whom 254 038 all-cause deaths occurred. The pooled women vs men ratio of the HRs for all-cause and CHD mortality were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.12–1.23, I2 = 81.6%) and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.49–2.61, I2 = 86.4%), respectively. The pooled estimate of the HR for all-cause mortality was approximately 1.30 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was longer than 10 years and 1.10 in articles in which the duration of follow-up was less than 10 years. The pooled HRs for all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes was 2.33 (95% CI: 2.02–2.69) in women and 1.91 (95% CI: 1.72–2.12) in men, compared with their healthy counterparts.

Conclusions

The effect of diabetes on all-cause and CHD mortality is approximately 17 and 97% greater, respectively, for women than for men.

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K van der Tuin, M Ventayol Garcia, W E Corver, M N Khalifa, D Ruano Neto, E P M Corssmit, F J Hes, T P Links, J W A Smit, T S Plantinga, E Kapiteijn, T van Wezel and H Morreau

Objective

Gene alterations leading to activation of the MAPK pathway are of interest for targeted therapy in patients with advanced radioactive iodine refractory (RAI-R) thyroid carcinoma. Due to technical reasons gene fusion analysis in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tumor tissues has till now been limited. The objective of the present study was to identify targetable gene rearrangements in RNA isolated from formalin-fixed RAI-R thyroid carcinomas.

Design

Retrospective study in 132 patients with RAI-R thyroid carcinoma (59 papillary-, 24 follicular-, 35 Hürthle cell- and 14 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma).

Methods

Total nucleic acid (undivided DNA and RNA) was isolated from formalin-fixed tissue. Extensive gene fusion analysis was performed in all samples that tested negative for pathogenic BRAF, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS variants.

Results

Seven targetable gene fusions were identified in the remaining 60 samples without known DNA variants. This includes frequently reported gene fusions such as CCDC6/RET (PTC1), PRKAR1A/RET (PTC2) and ETV6/NTRK3 , and gene fusions that are less common in thyroid cancer (TPM3/NTRK1, EML4/ALK and EML4/NTRK3). Of note, most gene fusions were detected in papillary thyroid carcinoma and MAPK-associated alterations in Hürthle cell carcinomas are rare (2/35).

Conclusion

Targetable gene fusions were found in 12% of RAI-R thyroid carcinoma without DNA variants and can be effectively identified in formalin-fixed tissue. These gene fusions might provide a preclinical rationale to include specific kinase inhibitors in the treatment regimen for these patients. The latter intends to restore iodine transport and/or take advantage of the direct effect on tumor cell vitality once progressive disease is seen.

Open access

Jan Idkowiak, Yasir S Elhassan, Pascoe Mannion, Karen Smith, Rachel Webster, Vrinda Saraff, Timothy G Barrett, Nicholas J Shaw, Nils Krone, Renuka P Dias, Melanie Kershaw, Jeremy M Kirk, Wolfgang Högler, Ruth E Krone, Michael W O’Reilly and Wiebke Arlt

Objective

Androgen excess in childhood is a common presentation and may signify sinister underlying pathology. Data describing its patterns and severity are scarce, limiting the information available for clinical decision processes. Here, we examined the differential diagnostic value of serum DHEAS, androstenedione (A4) and testosterone in childhood androgen excess.

Design

Retrospective review of all children undergoing serum androgen measurement at a single center over 5 years.

Methods

Serum A4 and testosterone were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and DHEAS by immunoassay. Patients with at least one increased androgen underwent phenotyping by clinical notes review.

Results

In 487 children with simultaneous DHEAS, A4 and testosterone measurements, we identified 199 with androgen excess (140 pre- and 59 post-pubertal). Premature adrenarche (PA) was the most common pre-pubertal diagnosis (61%), characterized by DHEAS excess in 85%, while A4 and testosterone were only increased in 26 and 9% respectively. PCOS was diagnosed in 40% of post-pubertal subjects, presenting equally frequent with isolated excess of DHEAS (29%) or testosterone (25%) or increases in both A4 and testosterone (25%). CAH patients (6%) predominantly had A4 excess (86%); testosterone and DHEAS were increased in 50 and 33% respectively. Concentrations increased above the two-fold upper limit of normal were mostly observed in PA for serum DHEAS (>20-fold in the single case of adrenocortical carcinoma) and in CAH for serum androstenedione.

Conclusions

Patterns and severity of childhood androgen excess provide pointers to the underlying diagnosis and can be used to guide further investigations.

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Pouneh K Fazeli, Alexander T Faje, Miriam A Bredella, Sai Polineni, Stephen Russell, Megi Resulaj, Clifford J Rosen and Anne Klibanski

Objective

In anorexia nervosa, a psychiatric disease characterized by self-induced starvation and a model of chronic undernutrition, levels of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissue are low, whereas marrow adipose tissue (MAT) levels are elevated compared to normal-weight women. The reason for this paradoxical elevation of an adipose tissue depot in starvation is not known. We sought to understand changes in MAT in response to subacute changes in weight and to compare these changes with those of other fat depots and body composition parameters.

Design and methods

We conducted a 12-month longitudinal study including 46 premenopausal women (n = 26 with anorexia nervosa and n = 20 normal-weight controls) with a mean (s.e.m.) age of 28.2 ± 0.8 years. We measured MAT, SAT, VAT and bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline and after 12 months.

Results

At baseline, SAT (P < 0.0001), VAT (P < 0.02) and BMD of the spine and hip (P ≤ 0.0002) were significantly lower and vertebral and metaphyseal MAT (P ≤ 0.001) significantly higher in anorexia nervosa compared to controls. Weight gain over 12 months was associated with increases not only in SAT and VAT, but also epiphyseal MAT (P < 0.03). Changes in epiphyseal MAT were positively associated with changes in BMD (P < 0.03).

Conclusions

In contrast to the steady state, in which MAT levels are higher in anorexia nervosa and MAT and BMD are inversely associated, short-term weight gain is associated with increases in both MAT and BMD. These longitudinal data demonstrate the dynamic nature of this fat depot and provide further evidence of its possible role in mineral metabolism.

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Lu Zhang, Marco Castellana, Camilla Virili, Anna Crescenzi, Francesco Giorgino, Emanuele Zucca, Luca Ceriani, Franco Cavalli, Luca Giovanella and Pierpaolo Trimboli

Background

Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare malignancy, and its prognosis depends significantly on its early diagnosis. While fine-needle aspiration (FNA) represents the gold standard to identify differentiated thyroid carcinoma, its reliability for the detection of PTL is still unclear. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of FNA in PTL.

Research design and methods

A comprehensive literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus databases was conducted to retrieve papers reporting histologically proven PTL undergone FNA. The last search was performed in February 2018 without language and time restrictions.

Results

Thirty-two studies describing 593 PTL were included and the pooled FNA sensitivity was 0.48 (95% CI = 0.38–0.58). FNA sensitivity was 0.51 in 20 studies published before 2010 and 0.39 in those published later, 0.50 in six articles with at least 20 cases and 0.44 in nine series enrolled after 2000. This performance was similar in 12 articles including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (0.54) and those six on marginal zone lymphoma (0.56). Remarkably, FNA sensitivity increased to 0.72 when considering also FNA reports suspicious for PTL reported in 14 articles. Heterogeneity among the series was found. Publication bias was not always detected.

Conclusions

The present meta-analysis demonstrated that FNA has low sensitivity in diagnosing PTL. However, this rate increased when considering also FNA reports suspicious for PTL, which is relevant from a clinical standpoint. This result could support indirectly the use of additional imaging and/or core biopsy when PTL is suspected.

Free access

Anna Nordenström and Henrik Falhammar

Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) is a relatively common disorder regardless of ethnicity, but most cases are never diagnosed, especially in males. A baseline 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement may be used for screening, but 17-hydroxyprogesterone measurement after ACTH stimulation is the gold standard. We advocate a CYP21A2 mutation analysis to verify the diagnosis, for genetic counselling and for better prognostic and treatment guidance. Most patients are diagnosed in adolescence and adult life with hirsutism, acne, a PCOS-like picture and fertility issues. Many men with NCAH never seek medical attention and escape diagnosis. Although treatment is somewhat controversial, an early diagnosis and start of treatment may have positive implications on growth and be relevant for preventing and ameliorating the symptoms and consequences of androgen excess that develop over time, including fertility issues. Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids will improve the androgen symptoms but may result in long-term complications, such as obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, osteoporosis and fractures. The glucocorticoid doses should be kept low. However, complications seen in NCAH, assumed to be caused by the glucocorticoid treatment, may also be associated with long-term androgen exposure. Oral contraceptive pills are a common treatment option for young females with NCAH. Regular clinical monitoring to improve the clinical outcome is recommended. It is important to acknowledge that glucocorticoid treatment will lead to secondary cortisol insufficiency and the need for stress dosing. Studies focusing on the specific difficulties patients with NCAH face, both those with a late clinical diagnosis and those with a neonatal diagnosis obtained by screening, are warranted.

Open access

Ingibjörg H Jonsdottir and Anna Sjörs Dahlman

Burnout has several different definitions, and attempts have been made to discriminate between burnout as a psychological construct and burnout as a clinical entity. A large body of research has focused on elucidating the biological link between stress exposure and burnout and/or finding a clinically usable biomarker for burnout. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the main endocrine and immune findings in relation to burnout. The literature has primarily focused on dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, albeit the large body of studies, it cannot be concluded that clear effects are seen on HPA axis function in people with burnout. The HPA axis and anabolic acute reactivity to stress might be affected in clinical burnout. Plausible, effects of chronic stress might rather be seen when measuring responses to acute stress rather than resting state hormonal levels. Studies on other hormones, including thyroid hormones, prolactin and growth hormone in burnout subjects are inconclusive. It is important to note that this field is faced with many methodological challenges, one being the diurnal and pulsatile nature of many of the hormones of interest, including cortisol, which is not always considered. Another challenge is the heterogeneity regarding definitions and measurements of stress and burnout. Existing studies on burnout and immune function are heterogeneous regarding the results and no firm conclusion can be made if clinically relevant immune changes are present in burnout subjects. An overall conclusion is that existing research cannot confirm any homogenous reliable endocrinological or immunological changes related to burnout.

Free access

Aikaterini Lavrentaki, Asad Ali, Brendan G Cooper and Abd A Tahrani

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder that is associated with serious comorbidities with a negative impact on quality of life, life expectancy and health costs. As OSA is related to obesity and is associated with sleep disruption, increased inflammation and oxidative stress, it is not surprising that OSA has an impact on the secretion of multiple hormones and is implicated in the development of many endocrine conditions. On the other hand, many endocrine conditions that can affect obesity and/or upper airways anatomy and stability have been implicated in the development or worsening of OSA. This bidirectional relationship between OSA and the endocrine system has been increasingly recognised in experimental and epidemiological studies and there are an increasing number of studies examining the effects of OSA treatment on endocrine conditions and vice versa. In this review article, we will critically appraise and describe the impact of OSA on the endocrine system including obesity, dysglycaemia, the pituitary, the thyroid, the adrenals, the reproductive system and the bones. In each section, we will assess whether a bidirectional relationship exists, and we will describe the potential underlying mechanisms. We have focused more on recent studies and randomised controlled trials where available and attempted to provide the information within clinical context and relevance.