Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) caused by type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have a heightened fracture risk. Bone mineral density (BMD) may predict fracture less accurately in ESKD than in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 1–3b or the general population. Alternate, readily available imaging modalities are needed to improve ESKD fracture risk assessment. This study aimed to assess dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived BMD, the trabecular bone score (TBS) and advanced hip analysis parameters in patients with ESKD due to T1DM and to compare their results with those of patients with ESKD from other causes.
We compared the DXA-derived TBS, hip cortical thickness (CT) and femoral neck (FN) buckling ratio (BR), an index of FN stability, of patients with T1DM and ESKD undergoing simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation, patients with ESKD from other causes receiving kidney transplants and population reference ranges.
Of 227 patients with ESKD, 28% had T1DM and 65% were male. Compared with other ESKD patients, patients with T1DM were younger (42 ± 7.7 vs 51 ± 13.8 years), had shorter dialysis duration (24.4 ± 21 vs 42.6 ± 40 months), had higher HbA1c (7.9 ± 1.57% vs 5.4 ± 0.95%) and had lower BMI (25 ± 6 vs 27 ± 5 kg/m2). They had lower spine, hip and UD radius BMD Z-scores (all P ≤ 0.001), TBS (1.33 ± 0.12 vs 1.36 ± 0.12; P = 0.05), CT at the FN (P = 0.03), calcar (P = 0.006) and shaft (P < 0.001) and higher BR (10.1±7.1 vs 7.7±4; P = 0.006). All ESKD parameters were lower than population-based reference ranges (P < 0.001). Adjusting for age, sex, dialysis vintage and weight, prevalent vertebral fractures in patients with T1DM and ESKD were associated with higher BR (odds ratio (OR): 3.27 (95% CI: 1.19–8.92), P = 0.002) and lower FN CT (OR: 3.70 (95% CI: 1.13–12.50)).
Patients with ESKD and T1DM have reduced TBS, reduced CT and increased BR compared with other ESKD patients. Prospective study of these parameters is warranted to determine their utility in fracture risk prediction and management.
Patients with ESKD and T1DM have an elevated fracture risk due to decreased bone strength. As an adjunct to BMD, evaluating dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry parameters that incorporate structural change may have greater value in patients with ESKD and T1DM than in the general population. In this study, patients with ESKD due to T1DM had lower BMD, lower trabecular bone scores, more severe loss of CT and higher BR than other patients with ESKD and people from the general population. Both lower CT and higher BR were associated with prevalent vertebral fractures in patients with T1DM and ESKD. Changes to these parameters should be evaluated for incident fracture prediction.