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Clarisse Hochman, Justine Cristante, Aurore Geslot, Sylvie Salenave, Emmanuel Sonnet, Claire Briet, Anne Bachelot, Nicolas Chevalier, Olivier Gilly, Thierry Brue, Samy Hadjadj, Veronique Kerlan, Philippe Chanson, Delphine Vezzosi, Olivier Chabre, Delphine Drui, and Frederic Castinetti

Design

Hypercortisolism during pregnancy is a risk factor for prematurity. Long-term exposure to hypercortisolism may lead to permanent comorbidities, such as hypertension or diabetes, even after remission. Our aim was to determine whether women with a history of Cushing’s disease (and being eu-, hypo- or hypercortisolic at the time of pregnancy) had the same risks of comorbidities, and especially prematurity, during pregnancy.

Methods

It was a retrospective multicentric study focusing on mothers with a history of Cushing’s disease or diagnosed during pregnancy, followed in French tertiary referral centers. We compared the outcomes of pregnancies depending on the cortisolic status at the time of pregnancy.

Results

A total of 60 patients (78 pregnancies including 21 with hypercortisolism, 32 with hypocortisolism and 25 in eucortisolism in 25) were evaluated. The overall rate of preterm birth was 24.3%, with a peak in women diagnosed during pregnancy (62.5%), a high risk in hypercortisolic (33%) and hypocortisolic (19.3%), and a low risk (8%) in eucortisolic women Gestational diabetes and hypertension were observed in 21% and 10.4% of the whole cohort, with a higher risk in hypercortisolic women. Cesarean delivery was performed in 33.7% of the cohort.

Conclusions

Being non-eucortisolic at the time of pregnancy increases the risk of prematurity and comorbidities compared to the general population. Women with a history of Cushing’s disease should thus be carefully monitored during pregnancy. The high rate of cesarean delivery emphasizes the fact that these pregnancies should always be considered at risk.

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Hassina Benlarbi, Dominique Simon, Jonathan Rosenblatt, Cecile Dumaine, Nicolas de Roux, Didier Chevenne, Caroline Storey, Amélie Poidvin, Laetitia Martinerie, Jean-Claude Carel, and Juliane Léger

Objective

Neonatal hyperthyroidism may be caused by a permanent non-autoimmune genetic disorder or, more frequently, by maternally transmitted high serum TRAb levels. Variable thyroid dysfunction may be observed in this second context. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of neonatal non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism and of the different types of thyroid function in neonates with a high risk of hyperthyroidism due to maternal Graves’ disease (GD).

Design and methods

This observational cohort study included all neonates identified in the database of a single academic pediatric care center, over a period of 13 years, as having non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism or an autoimmune disorder with high TRAb levels (above 6 IU/L) transmitted by their mothers. Patients were classified as having neonatal hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, or euthyroidism with a permanent or transient disorder.

Results

Two of the 34 consecutive neonates selected (6%) had permanent non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism due to germline (n = 1) or somatic (n = 1) mutations of the TSH receptor gene. The patients with high serum TRAb levels at birth had transient hyperthyroidism (n = 23), hypothyroidism (primary n = 2, central n = 3) or persistent euthyroidism (n = 4).

Conclusion

These original findings highlight the need for careful and appropriate monitoring of thyroid function in the long term, not only for the rare patients with non-autoimmune neonatal hyperthyroidism, but also for repeat monitoring during the first month of life in neonates with maternally transmitted high TRAb levels, to ensure the early identification of thyrotoxicosis in more than two thirds of cases and to detect primary or central hypothyroidism, thereby potentially decreasing associated morbidity.

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Cihan Atila, Clara O Sailer, Stefano Bassetti, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Roland Bingisser, Martin Siegemund, Stefan Osswald, Katharina Rentsch, Marco Rueegg, Sabrina Schaerli, Gabriela M Kuster, Raphael Twerenbold, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

Objective

The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally and infected millions of people. The prevalence and prognostic impact of dysnatremia in COVID-19 is inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and outcome of dysnatremia in COVID-19.

Design

The prospective, observational, cohort study included consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 triaged to a Swiss Emergency Department between March and July 2020.

Methods

Collected data included clinical, laboratory and disease severity scoring parameters on admission. COVID-19 cases were identified based on a positive nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2, patients with a negative swab test served as controls. The primary analysis was to assess the prognostic impact of dysnatremia on 30-day mortality using a cox proportional hazard model.

Results

172 (17%) cases with COVID-19 and 849 (83%) controls were included. Patients with COVID-19 showed a higher prevalence of hyponatremia compared to controls (28.1% vs 17.5%, P < 0.001); while comparable for hypernatremia (2.9% vs 2.1%, P = 0.34). In COVID-19 but not in controls, hyponatremia was associated with a higher 30-day mortality (HR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.10–16.62, P = 0.05). In both groups, hypernatremia on admission was associated with higher 30-day mortality (COVID-19 - HR: 11.5, 95% CI: 5.00–26.43, P < 0.001; controls - HR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.60–17.64, P = 0.006). In both groups, hyponatremia and hypernatremia were significantly associated with adverse outcome, for example, intensive care unit admission, longer hospitalization and mechanical ventilation.

Conclusion

Our results underline the importance of dysnatremia as predictive marker in COVID-19. Treating physicians should be aware of appropriate treatment measures to be taken for patients with COVID-19 and dysnatremia.

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Minna Soinio, Anna-Kaarina Luukkonen, Marko Seppänen, Jukka Kemppainen, Janne Seppänen, Juha-Pekka Pienimäki, Helena Leijon, Tiina Vesterinen, Johanna Arola, Eila Lantto, Semi Helin, Ilkka Tikkanen, Saara Metso, Tuomas Mirtti, Ilkka Heiskanen, Leena Norvio, Mirja Tiikkainen, Tuula Tikkanen, Timo Sane, Matti Välimäki, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Ilkka Pörsti, Pirjo Nuutila, Pasi I Nevalainen, and Niina Matikainen

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Niels B Dalsgaard, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Laura S Hansen, Nina L Hansen, Signe Stensen, Bolette Hartmann, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, and Filip K Knop

Aims

The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is believed to reduce plasma glucose by delaying hydrolysis of carbohydrates. Acarbose-induced transfer of carbohydrates to the distal parts of the intestine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9–39)NH2, we investigated the effect of acarbose-induced GLP-1 secretion on postprandial glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, 15 participants with metformin-treated type 2 diabetes (age: 57–85 years, HbA1c: 40–74 mmol/mol) were subjected to two 14-day treatment periods with acarbose or placebo, respectively, separated by a 6-week wash-out period. At the end of each period, two randomized 4-h liquid mixed meal tests with concomitant infusion of exendin(9–39)NH2 and saline, respectively, were performed.

Results

Compared to placebo, acarbose increased postprandial GLP-1 concentrations and decreased postprandial glucose. We observed no absolute difference in the exendin(9–39)NH2-induced increase in postprandial glucose excursions between placebo and acarbose periods, but relatively, postprandial glucose was increased by 119 ± 116% (mean ± s.d.) during exendin(9–39)NH2 infusion in the acarbose period vs a 39 ± 27% increase during the placebo period (P = 0.0163).

Conclusions

We confirm that acarbose treatment stimulates postprandial GLP-1 secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Using exendin(9–39)NH2, we did not see an impact of acarbose-induced GLP-1 secretion on absolute measures of postprandial glucose tolerance, but relatively, the effect of exendin(9–39)NH2 was most pronounced during acarbose treatment.

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Marco Mezzullo, Alessandra Gambineri, Guido Di Dalmazi, Alessia Fazzini, Matteo Magagnoli, Margherita Baccini, Valentina Vicennati, Carla Pelusi, Uberto Pagotto, and Flaminia Fanelli

Objective

To investigate the impact of age, obesity and metabolic parameters on 13 circulating steroids in reproductive and menopausal age. To define reference intervals (RIs).

Design

Cross-sectional.

Methods

Three hundred and twenty five drug-free, healthy and eumenorrheic women were selected from the general population. Independent relationships of LC-MS/MS-determined steroid levels with age, BMI and metabolic parameters were estimated. Reference sub-cohorts were defined for calculating upper and lower limits in reproductive age, menstrual phases and menopause, and these were compared with limits in dysmetabolic sub-cohorts.

Results

Lower androgens, pro-androgens and estrogens, but higher cortisol and metabolites were found in menopausal compared to reproductive age women. Androgens and precursors decreased during reproductive age (P < 0.001–P = 0.002) but not after menopause. 17OH-progesterone decreased with BMI (P = 0.006) and glucocorticoids with waist circumference (P < 0.001P = 0.002) in reproductive age, but increased with triglycerides (P=0.011P=0.038) after menopause. Inverse associations of dihydrotestosterone with BMI (P=0.004) and HDL-cholesterol (P=0.010), estrone with total cholesterol (P=0.033) and estradiol with triglycerides (P=0.011) were found in reproductive age. After menopause, estrone increased with waist circumference (P<0.001) and decreased with insulin resistance (P=0.012). Ovarian steroid RIs were estimated in menstrual phases and menopause. Age- and reproductive status-specific RIs were generated for androgens, precursors and corticosteroids. Lower limits for reproductive age cortisol (P=0.020) and menopausal 11-deoxycortisol (P=0.003) in dysmetabolic sub-cohorts were reduced and increased, respectively, compared to reference limits.

Conclusions

Obesity and dysmetabolism differently influence circulating steroids in reproductive and menopausal status. Age, menstrual and menopausal status-specific RIs were provided by LC-MS/MS for a broad steroid panel.

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Hyun-Wook Chae and Young-Mock Lee

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Marissa Penna-Martinez, Gesine Meyer, Anette Boe Wolff, Beate Skinningsrud, Corrado Betterle, Alberto Falorni, William Ollier, Dag Undlien, Eystein Husebye, Simon Pearce, Anna L Mitchell, and Klaus Badenhoop

Objective

While vitamin D regulates immune cells, little is known about it in autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD). We investigated the vitamin D status in AAD patients from five European populations to assess its deficiency. In addition, we studied two case-control cohorts for vitamin D metabolism and pathway genes.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Methods

A total of 1028 patients with AAD from Germany (n = 239), Italy (n = 328), Norway (n = 378), UK (n = 44) and Poland (n = 39) and 679 controls from Germany (n = 301) and Norway (n = 378) were studied for 25(OH)D3 (primary objective). Secondary objectives (1,25(OH)2D3 and pathway genes) were examined in case-controls from Germany and Norway correlating 25(OH)D3 and single nucleotide polymorphisms within genes encoding the vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1-α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and vitamin D binding protein (GC/DBP).

Results

Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D3 10–20 ng/mL) was highly prevalent in AAD patients (34–57%), 5–22% were severely deficient (<10 ng/mL), 28–38% insufficient (20–30 ng/mL) and only 7–14% sufficient (>30 ng/mL). Lower 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels were observed both in Norwegian and German AAD (P = 0.03/0.003 and P = 1 × 10-5/< 1 × 10-7 , respectively) the former was associated with CYP2R1 (rs1553006) genotype G. Whereas controls achieved sufficient median 25(OH)D3 in summers (21.4 to 21.9 ng/mL), AAD patients remained largely deficient (18.0 to 21.2 ng/mL) and synthesize less 1,25(OH)2D3.

Conclusion

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are highly prevalent in AAD patients. The vitamin D status of AAD may be influenced by genetic factors and suggests individual vitamin D requirements throughout the year.

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Rosemary Dineen, Julie Martin-Grace, Khalid Mohamed Saeed Ahmed, Isolda Frizelle, Anjuli Gunness, Aoife Garrahy, Anne Marie Hannon, Michael W O’Reilly, Diarmuid Smith, John McDermott, Marie-Louise Healy, Amar Agha, Agnieszka Pazderska, James Gibney, Chris J Thompson, Lucy-Ann Behan, and Mark Sherlock

Background

Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and reduced quality of life (QoL). Optimum glucocorticoid (GC) dosing and timing are crucial in the treatment of AI, yet the natural circadian secretion of cortisol is difficult to mimic. The once-daily dual-release hydrocortisone (DR-HC) preparation (Plenadren®), offers a more physiological cortisol profile and may address unmet needs.

Methods

An investigator-initiated, prospective, cross-over study in patients with AI. Following baseline assessment of cardiometabolic risk factors and QoL, patients switched from their usual hydrocortisone regimen to a once-daily dose equivalent of DR-HC and were reassessed after 12 weeks of treatment.

Results

Fifty-one patients (21 PAI/30 SAI) completed the study. Mean age was 41.6 years (s.d. 13), and 58% (n = 30) were male. The median daily HC dose before study entry was 20 mg (IQR 15–20 mg). After 3 months on DR-HC, the mean SBP decreased by 5.7 mmHg, P = 0.0019 and DBP decreased by 4.5 mmHg, P = 0.0011. There was also a significant reduction in mean body weight (−1.23 kg, P = 0.006) and BMI (−0.3 kg/m2, P = 0.003). In a sub-analysis, there was a greater reduction in SBP observed in patients with SAI when compared to PAI post-DR-HC. Patients reported significant improvements in QoL using three validated QoL questionnaires, with a greater improvement in PAI.

Conclusion

Dual-release hydrocortisone decreases BP, weight and BMI compared with conventional HC treatment, even at physiological GC replacement doses. Additionally, DR-HC confers significant improvements in QoL compared to immediate-release HC, particularly in patients with PAI, which is also reflected in the patient preference for DR-HC.

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Konstantina Vouzouneraki, Daniela Esposito, Sebastian Mukka, Daniel Granfeldt, Oskar Ragnarsson, Per Dahlqvist, and Daniel S Olsson

Objective

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in patients with acromegaly, with a reported prevalence of 19–64%. We studied CTS in a large national cohort of patients with acromegaly and the temporal relationship between the two diagnoses.

Design

Retrospective, nationwide, cohort study including patients diagnosed with acromegaly in Sweden, 2005–2017, identified in the Swedish Healthcare Registries.

Methods

CTS (diagnosis and surgery in specialised healthcare) was analysed from 8.5 years before the diagnosis of acromegaly until death or end of the study. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% CIs were calculated for CTS with the Swedish population as reference.

Results

The analysis included 556 patients with acromegaly (50% women) diagnosed at mean (s.d.) age 50.1 (15.0) years. During the study period, 48 patients were diagnosed with CTS and 41 patients underwent at least one CTS surgery. In the latter group, 35 (85%) were operated for CTS before the acromegaly diagnosis; mean interval (range) 2.2 (0.3–8.5) years and the SIR for having CTS surgery before the diagnosis of acromegaly was 6.6 (4.8–8.9). Women with acromegaly had a higher risk for CTS than men (hazard ratio: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3–4.7).

Conclusions

Patients with acromegaly had a 6-fold higher incidence for CTS surgery before the diagnosis of acromegaly compared with the general population. The majority of patients with both diagnoses were diagnosed with CTS prior to acromegaly. Increased awareness of signs of acromegaly in patients with CTS might help to shorten the diagnostic delay in acromegaly, especially in women.