The increasing use of cross-sectional imaging, mainly CT, results in an accelerating number of incidental findings, for instance of adrenal tumours. Although most ‘adrenal incidentalomas’ are benign, it is important to identify the malignant and the hormone producing (functional) tumours. For a small fraction of adrenal incidentalomas, the diagnosis is apparent on imaging, but the large majority requires radiological characterisation. To this end, a previous joint European Society of Endocrinology and European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumours publication in this jounal, recommends CT measurements of the native (non-contrast) tumour attenuation ≤10 Hounsfield units, consistent with a lipid-rich benign adrenocortical adenoma, and imaging at least 6 months apart, on which unchanged tumour size implies a benign tumour. Because of weak evidence, calculation of CT contrast medium washout was not recommended as a means for tumour characterisation, but this technique has nevertheless still been applied in several countries. The recent article by Schloetelburg et al. in this journal is important because, in the largest study to date, the authors confirm that calculation of CT contrast medium washout with established thresholds is insufficient to reliably characterise adrenal tumours. Their results are therefore expected to impact the management of these patients.
Esra Dülger, Melike Mut, Tomris Erbas, Levent Sahiner, Naciye Vardar Yağlı, and Sevil Bilgin
The pituitary gland is responsible for hormonal balance in the body, and disruption of hormonal balance in patients with pituitary adenoma (PA) indirectly affects the quality of life. This study aimed to examine the effects of yoga and combined aerobic and strength training (A+ST) on quality of life and related parameters such as sleep, fatigue, emotional state, sexual function, and cognitive status in women with PA.
Ten women with PA were included in this randomized crossover study. Group 1 (n = 5, mean age: 52 ± 13.5 years) received A+ST for the first 6 weeks, a 2-week washout period, and yoga for the second 6 weeks. Group 2 (n = 5, mean age: 41.8 ± 14 years) received the yoga program first, followed by the A+ST program.
Participants were assessed using the following tools before and after each exercise intervention: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Brain (FACT-Br) (quality of life), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MOCA).
FACT-Br scores were higher after the yoga program, HADS anxiety score was lower after the A+ST program, and MOCA scores increased after both exercise programs (P < 0.05). FSS score decreased after both exercise programs, but not significantly. In addition, nonsignificant decreases in HADS anxiety and depression scores and increased FSFI scores were observed after the yoga program.
A+ST and yoga have positive effects on the quality of life in PA. We recommend yoga and A+ST as a supportive therapy for this population that may face comorbidities after surgical and medical treatment. Our results indicate these patients may benefit from physiotherapist-guided exercise programs.
Steven G Waguespack, Alexander Drilon, Jessica J Lin, Marcia S Brose, Ray McDermott, Mohammed Almubarak, Jessica Bauman, Michela Casanova, Anuradha Krishnamurthy, Shivaani Kummar, Serge Leyvraz, Do-Youn Oh, Keunchil Park, Davendra Sohal, Eric Sherman, Ricarda Norenberg, Josh D Silvertown, Nicoletta Brega, David S Hong, and Maria E Cabanillas
Larotrectinib is a highly selective tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitor with demonstrated efficacy across various TRK fusion-positive solid tumours. We assessed the efficacy and safety of larotrectinib in patients with TRK fusion-positive thyroid carcinoma (TC).
We pooled data from three phase I/II larotrectinib clinical trials (NCT02576431, NCT02122913, and NCT02637687). The primary endpoint was the investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR) per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. Data cut-off: July 2020.
Twenty-nine patients (median age: 60; range: 6–80) with TRK fusion-positive TC were treated. Tumour histology was papillary (PTC) in 20 (69%) patients, follicular (FTC) in 2 (7%), and anaplastic (ATC) in 7 (24%) patients. Among 28 evaluable patients, ORR was 71% (95% CI: 51–87); best responses were complete response in 2 (7%) patients, partial response in 18 (64%), stable disease in 4 (14%), progressive disease in 3 (11%), and undetermined in 1 (4%) due to clinical progression prior to the first post-baseline assessment. ORR was 86% (95% CI: 64–97) for PTC/FTC and 29% (95% CI 4–71) for ATC. Median time to response was 1.87 months (range 1.64–3.68). The 24-month DoR, PFS, and OS rates were 81, 69, and 76%, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were mainly grades 1–2.
In TRK fusion-positive TC, larotrectinib demonstrates rapid and durable disease control and a favourable safety profile in patients with advanced disease requiring systemic therapy.
NTRK gene fusions are known oncogenic drivers and have been identified in various histologies of thyroid carcinoma, most commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma. This is the first publication specifically studying a TRK inhibitor in a cohort of TRK fusion-positive thyroid carcinoma patients. In the current study, the highly selective TRK inhibitor larotrectinib showed durable antitumour efficacy and a favourable safety profile in patients with TRK fusion-positive thyroid carcinoma. Our findings show that patients with advanced non-medullary thyroid carcinoma who may require systemic therapy could be considered for testing for gene fusions by next-generation sequencing.
Sabina Ruiz, Federico Vázquez, Silvia Pellitero, and Manel Puig-Domingo
Obesity, the growing pandemic of the 21st century, is associated with multiple organ dysfunction, either by a direct increase in fatty organ content or by indirect modifications related to general metabolic changes driven by a specific increase in biologic products. The pituitary gland is not protected against such a situation. Different hypothalamic–pituitary axes experience functional modifications initially oriented to an adaptive situation that, with years of obesity, turn to maladaptive dynamics that contribute to perpetuating obesity and specific symptoms of their hormonal nature. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on obesity-related pituitary dysfunction and its pathogenic mechanisms and discusses potential therapeutic actions aimed at contributing to ameliorating the complex treatment of severe cases of obesity.
Niamh-Maire McLennan, Jonathan Hazlehurst, Shakila Thangaratinam, and Rebecca M Reynolds
There is an increase in maternal metabolic burden due to the rise in pregnancies complicated by obesity, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome. Metabolic dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of long-term morbidity and mortality for women and their offspring. Lifestyle interventions in pregnancy in women at risk of metabolic dysfunction have demonstrated short-term improvements such as reduced gestational weight gain and lowered risk of gestational diabetes. It is not known whether these interventions lead to sustained improvements in the metabolic health of the mother and baby. Pharmacological interventions have also shown benefits for the mother and baby in pregnancy, including improvements in glycaemic control, reduction in gestational weight gain and reduction in large for gestational age infants; however, there remains uncertainty over long-term outcomes for mother and child. Existing studies on interventions targeting metabolic health are limited to selected populations in the preconception and postpartum periods and lack follow-up beyond delivery of the intervention. The COVID-19 pandemic has refocused our attention on the effects of maternal metabolic ill-health that play a role in contributing to premature morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for strategies to accurately identify the growing number of women and offspring at risk of long-term adverse metabolic health. Strategies which focus on early identification and risk stratification using individualised risk scores in the pre and inter-conception periods must take priority if we are to target and improve the metabolic health of women and their offspring who are at highest risk.
Laura E Dichtel, Melanie S Haines, Anu V Gerweck, Bryan Bollinger, Allison Kimball, David Schoenfeld, Miriam A Bredella, and Karen K Miller
Overweight/obesity is associated with relative growth hormone (GH) deficiency and increased fracture risk. We hypothesized that GH administration would improve bone endpoints in individuals with overweight/obesity.
An 18-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of GH, followed by 6-month observation.
In this study, 77 adults (53% men), aged 18–65 years, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, and BMD T- or Z-score ≤ −1.0 were randomized to daily subcutaneous GH or placebo, targeting IGF1 in the upper quartile of the age-appropriate normal range. Forty-nine completed 18 months. DXA, volumetric quantitative CT, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT were performed.
Pre-treatment mean age (48 ± 12 years), BMI (33.1 ± 5.7 kg/m2), and BMD were similar between groups. P1NP, osteocalcin, and CTX increased (P < 0.005) and visceral adipose tissue decreased (P = 0.04) at 18 months in the GH vs placebo group. Hip and radius aBMD, spine and tibial vBMD, tibial cortical thickness, and radial and tibial failure load decreased in the GH vs placebo group (P < 0.05). Between 18 and 24 months (post-treatment observation period), radius aBMD and tibia cortical thickness increased in the GH vs placebo group. At 24 months, there were no differences between the GH and placebo groups in bone density, structure, or strength compared to baseline.
GH administration for 18 months increased bone turnover in adults with overweight/obesity. It also decreased some measures of BMD, bone microarchitecture, and bone strength, which all returned to pre-treatment levels 6 months post-therapy. Whether GH administration increases BMD with longer treatment duration, or after mineralization of an expanded remodeling space post-treatment, requires further investigation.
Takuyuki Katabami, Ren Matsuba, Hiroki Kobayashi, Tomoko Nakagawa, Isao Kurihara, Takamasa Ichijo, Mika Tsuiki, Norio Wada, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Masakatsu Sone, Nobuya Inagaki, Takanobu Yoshimoto, Katsutoshi Takahashi, Koichi Yamamoto, Shoichiro Izawa, Miki Kakutani, Akiyo Tanabe, Mitsuhide Naruse, and JPAS/JRAS Study Group
In primary aldosteronism (PA), renal impairment has been identified as an important comorbidity. Excess cortisol production also may lead to renal damage; thus, concomitant mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACS) may predispose PA patients to renal disorders. However, there is limited evidence to support this claim. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether the concurrence of MACS and PA increases the risk of renal complications.
This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study.
A total of 1310 patients with PA were stratified into two groups according to 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) results (cut-off post-DST serum cortisol 1.8 µg/dL): MACS (n = 340) and non-MACS (n = 970). The prevalence of renal complications was compared between the group. We also performed multiple logistic regression analysis to determine factors that increase the risk for renal complications.
The prevalence of lowered estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria was nearly twice higher in the MACS group than in the non-MACS group. Not only plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) but also the presence of MACS was selected as independent factors that were associated with the two renal outcomes. The risk of lower eGFR or proteinuria in patients who had MACS and higher levels PAC was several folds higher than in those who had an absence of MACS and lower levels of PAC.
MACS is an independent risk factor for renal complications in patients with PA, and MACS concomitant with higher aldosterone secretion in PA patients causes an increase in the risk of developing renal complications.
A Nordenström, S F Ahmed, E van den Akker, J Blair, M Bonomi, C Brachet, L H A Broersen, H L Claahsen-van der Grinten, A B Dessens, A Gawlik, C H Gravholt, A Juul, C Krausz, T Raivio, A Smyth, P Touraine, D Vitali, and O M Dekkers
An Endo-European Reference Network guideline initiative was launched including 16 clinicians experienced in endocrinology, pediatric and adult and 2 patient representatives. The guideline was endorsed by the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, the European Society for Endocrinology and the European Academy of Andrology. The aim was to create practice guidelines for clinical assessment and puberty induction in individuals with congenital pituitary or gonadal hormone deficiency. A systematic literature search was conducted, and the evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. If the evidence was insufficient or lacking, then the conclusions were based on expert opinion. The guideline includes recommendations for puberty induction with oestrogen or testosterone. Publications on the induction of puberty with follicle-stimulation hormone and human chorionic gonadotrophin in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism are reviewed. Specific issues in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome or androgen insensitivity syndrome are considered. The expert panel recommends that pubertal induction or sex hormone replacement to sustain puberty should be cared for by a multidisciplinary team. Children with a known condition should be followed from the age of 8 years for girls and 9 years for boys. Puberty induction should be individualised but considered at 11 years in girls and 12 years in boys. Psychological aspects of puberty and fertility issues are especially important to address in individuals with sex development disorders or congenital pituitary deficiencies. The transition of these young adults highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, to discuss both medical issues and social and psychological issues that arise in the context of these chronic conditions.
Kim Huynh, Marianne Klose, Kim Krogsgaard, Jørgen Drejer, Sarah Byberg, Sten Madsbad, Faidon Magkos, Abdellatif Aharaz, Berit Edsberg, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen, Arne Vernon Astrup, and Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen
Hypothalamic injury often leads to rapid, intractable weight gain causing hypothalamic obesity, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality. There are no approved or effective pharmacological treatments for hypothalamic obesity, and conventional lifestyle management remains ineffective.
To investigate the safety and efficacy of Tesomet (0.5 mg tesofensine/50 mg metoprolol) in adults with hypothalamic obesity.
Twenty-one adults with hypothalamic obesity (16 females) were randomized to Tesomet (0.5 mg/50 mg) or placebo for 24 weeks. Patients also received diet/lifestyle counselling. The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included measures of body weight, appetite scores, quality of life, and metabolic profile.
Eighteen patients completed 24 weeks. Consent withdrawal, eligibility, and serious adverse events (SAE) unrelated to treatment resulted in dropouts. One patient experienced a Tesomet-related SAE of exacerbated pre-existing anxiety leading to treatment discontinuation. Tesomet-related adverse events were otherwise mostly mild and included sleep disturbances (Tesomet 50%, placebo 13%), dry mouth (Tesomet 43%, placebo 0%), and headache (Tesomet 36%, placebo 0%). No significant differences in heart rate or blood pressure were observed between groups. Compared to placebo, Tesomet resulted in additional mean (95% CI) weight change of −6.3% ((−11.3; −1.3); P = 0.017), increased the number of patients achieving ≥5% weight loss (Tesomet 8/13, placebo 1/8; P = 0.046), and tended to augment the reduction in waist circumference by 5.7 cm ((−0.1; 11.5); P = 0.054).
Tesomet was welltolerated, did not affect heart rate or blood pressure, and resulted in significant reductions in body weight compared to placebo in adults with hypothalamic obesity.
Jiwon Kim, Yoon-a Hwang, Yae Won Park, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Jae Won Hong, Eun Jig Lee, and Cheol Ryong Ku
Over the past decade, the growth hormone (GH) nadir cut-off during the oral glucose tolerance test for remission in patients with acromegaly was changed from 0.4 to 1.0 μg/L due to the limited use of ultrasensitive detection kits to measure GH levels. However, the optimal cut-off level for GH nadir remains unclear. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the association between different GH nadir cut-offs and prognosis in patients with acromegaly.
Design and methods
A total of 285 patients with acromegaly with a glucose-suppressed GH nadir <1 μg/L at 3–6 months after trans-sphenoidal adenomectomy were divided into two groups according to the glucose-suppressed GH nadir levels at 3–6 months post-operatively (group A: <0.4 μg/L; group B: 0.4–1.0 μg/L). GH levels were measured using an ultrasensitive IRMA. The clinical, hormonal, metabolic, and neuroradiological data of the two groups were compared.
Female sex, as well as confirmed macroadenomas, was significantly overrepresented in group B. The 5-year rate of patients who achieved nadir GH < 1.0 μg/L and age- and sex-matched normal IGF-1 was significantly higher in group A than that in group B. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in metabolic parameters at 12 months post-operatively.
Different GH nadir cut-offs were associated with different 5-year rates of patients who achieved nadir GH <1.0 μg/L and age- and sex-matched normal IGF-1, suggesting that a strict GH nadir threshold of 0.4 μg/L correlates better with remission.