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Laura Potasso, Julie Refardt, Christian Meier, and Mirjam Christ-Crain

Objective

Hyponatremia is associated with an increased risk of bone fragility and fractures. Many studies suggest that hyponatremia stimulates osteoclast activation, whereas other studies rather reveal a possible role of acute hyponatremia in impairing osteoblast function. We aimed to assess whether and how correction of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) has an impact on bone metabolism.

Design and Methods

This was a predefined secondary analysis of 88 hospitalized patients with SIAD undergoing a randomized treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors or placebo for 4 days. Biochemical markers of bone resorption (CTX) and bone formation (PINP) were collected in serum at baseline and after the intervention (day 5). Bone formation index (defined as PINP/CTX) and its difference between day 5 and baseline were calculated. Patients with steroid therapy (n = 6), fractures (n = 10), or whose data were missing (n = 4) were excluded from the analysis.

Results

Out of 68 patients, 27 (39.7%) were normonatremic at day 5. These patients showed an increase in serum PINP (P = 0.04), whereas persistent hyponatremic patients did not (P = 0.38), with a relevant difference between these two subgroups (P = 0.005). Serum CTX increased similarly in the two groups (P = 0.43). This produced a 47.9 points higher PINP/CTX difference between discharge and admission in normonatremic patients (95% CI: 17.0–78.7, P = 0.003) compared to patients with persistent hyponatremia, independent of age, sex, BMI, smoking habits, randomization arm, and baseline cortisol levels.

Conclusions

Our predefined post hoc analysis shows that correction of hyponatremia in hospitalized patients with SIAD might have a positive impact on osteoblast function.

Open access

Yongze Li, Zhongyan Shan, and Weiping Teng

Objective

Longitudinal studies have investigated the effects of changing iodine status on thyroid disorders, but the effect of a transition from more than adequate iodine to adequate iodine on national changes in prevalence adjusted for changing risk factors remains unclear.

Design

Two repeat nationwide surveys were conducted from 2009–2010 to 2015–2017 to assess changes in thyroid disorder prevalence and iodine status in China.

Methods

A multistage stratified random sampling method was used to obtain a nationally representative sample of urban adults aged 18 and older in mainland China in 2009 (n = 14 925) and 2015 (n = 12 553). Changes in thyroid disorder prevalence, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were assessed. Logistic regression models were used to examine changes in prevalence over time.

Results

The median UIC decreased significantly from 219.7 to 175.9 μg/L (P < 0.0001). The weighted prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, Graves’ disease, and goitre decreased between 2009 and 2015 in the overall population (P < 0.05 for all). Despite no significant changes in subclinical hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism or anti-thyroid peroxidase or anti-thyroglobulin antibody positivity prevalence, a significant increase in thyroid nodule prevalence (P < 0.0001) was found in the overall population. The 2.5th TSH percentile increased by 0.15 mIU/L (95% CI: 0.01 to 0.30 mIU/L, P = 0.04) from 2009 to 2015.

Conclusions

With the iodine status transition from more than adequate to adequate, thyroid disorder (except for thyroid nodules) prevalence remained stable or even decreased after adjusting for confounding factors among adults in mainland China between 2009 and 2015. Additional studies are needed to explore the reasons for the increased thyroid nodule prevalence.

Restricted access

Amanda Sampaio Mangolim, Leonardo de Andrade Rodrigues Brito, and Vania dos Santos Nunes-Nogueira

Objective

This systematic review evaluated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men with obesity having low testosterone levels (LTLs).

Design and methods

Search strategies were performed in MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and CENTRAL databases. Two reviewers selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data from the included studies. A random-effects model was used to pool results across studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation was used to evaluate the certainty of evidence.

Results

A total of 16 randomized controlled trials were included. With moderate certainty of the evidence, no difference was found between TRT and placebo regarding total adverse events, TRT led to a 2-kg lean body mass gain and slightly improved low-density lipoprotein (LDL), without effects on the blood pressure. Due to imprecision/heterogeneity, effects in cardiovascular events (relative risk: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.26 to 1.05, 7 trials, 583 participants), high-density lipoprotein, hematocrit, prostate-specific antigen, HbA1c, and quality of life were unclear. TRT was effective for waist circumference and BMI; however, large between-study heterogeneity was found, with 95% prediction intervals crossing the null effect line. Meta-regression revealed that the average age of participants was a significant modifier for both outcomes.

Conclusion

TRT slightly improved the lean body mass and LDL in men with obesity having LTLs but did not affect the blood pressure. The effects of TRT on cardiovascular events, HbA1c, and quality of life are unclear. The mean age of participants significantly modified the effect of TRT on weight loss.

Restricted access

Nicholas Russell, Rudolf Hoermann, Ada S Cheung, Jeffrey D Zajac, David J Handelsman, and Mathis Grossmann

Objective

Indirect evidence suggests that the effects of testosterone on fat mass in men are dependent on aromatization to estradiol (E2). However, no controlled study has assessed the effects of E2 in the absence of testosterone.

Design

Six-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial with the hypothesis that men randomized to E2 would reduce their fat mass.

Methods

Seventy-eight participants receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer were randomized to 0.9 mg of 0.1% E2 gel per day, or matched placebo. Dual x-ray absorptiometry body composition was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The primary outcome was total fat mass.

Results

Serum E2 increased in the estradiol group over 6 months compared to placebo, and mean-adjusted difference (MAD) was 207 pmol/L (95% CI: 123–292), P  < 0.001. E2 treatment changed total fat mass, MAD 1007 g (95% CI: 124–1891), but not significantly, so P = 0.09. There were other consistent non-significant trends toward increased proportional fat mass, MAD 0.8% (95% CI: 0.0–1.6), P= 0.15; gynoid fat, MAD 147 g (95% CI: 2–293), P = 0.08; visceral fat, 53 g (95% CI: 1–105) P = 0.13; and subcutaneous fat, MAD 65 g (95% CI: 5–125), P = 0.11. Android fat increased, MAD 164 g (95% CI: 41–286), P = 0.04.

Conclusion

Contrary to our hypothesis, we provide suggestive evidence that E2 acting in the absence of testosterone, may increase total and regional fat mass in men. Given the premature closure of clinical trials due to the COVID pandemic, this potentially important observation should encourage additional studies to confirm or refute whether E2 promotes fat expansion in the absence of testosterone.

Free access

Rui M B Maciel and Ana Luiza Maia

Genetic variability in humans is influenced by many factors, such as natural selection, mutations, genetic drift, and migrations. Molecular epidemiology evaluates the contribution of genetic risk factors in the etiology, diagnosis, and prevention of a particular disease. Few areas of medicine have been so clearly affected by genetic diagnosis and management as multiple neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), in which activating pathogenic variants in the RET gene results in the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and hyperparathyroidism in nearly 98, 50, and 25% of gene carriers, respectively. Here, we aimed to collect RET genotyping data worldwide to analyze the distribution and frequency of RET variants from a global perspective. We show that the mutational spectrum of RET is observed worldwide. The codon 634 variants seem to be the most prevalent, but there are differences in the type of amino acid exchanges among countries and in the frequencies of the other RET codon variants. Most interestingly, studies using haplotype analysis or pedigree linkage have demonstrated that some pathogenic RET variants have been transmitted to offspring for centuries, explaining some local prevalence due to a founder effect. Unfortunately, after almost three decades after the causative role of the germline RET variants has been reported in hereditary MTC, comprehensive genotyping data remain limited to a few countries. The heterogeneity of RET variants justifies the need for a global effort to describe epidemiological data of families with MEN2 to further understand the genetic background and environmental circumstances that affect disease presentation.

Free access

Andreas Ebbehoj, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, and Esben Søndergaard

Restricted access

Frederic Castinetti, Philippe Caron, Isabelle Raingeard, Vincent Amodru, Frederique Albarel, Isabelle Morange, Philippe Chanson, Julie Calvo, Thomas Graillon, Karine Baumstarck, Henry Dufour, Jean Regis, and Thierry Brue

Introduction

Persistent growth hormone hypersecretion can be observed in roughly 50% of patients operated for somatotroph adenomas, requiring additional treatments. Despite its proven antisecretory efficacy, the use of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK) is limited probably due to the lack of data on long-term side effects, including potential cognitive consequences.

Methods

The LATe Effects of Radiosurgery in Acromegaly study was a cross-sectional exposed/unexposed non-randomized study. The primary objective was to determine the long-term neurocognitive effects of GK focusing on memory, executive functions, and calculation ability. Exposed patients had been treated by GK for acromegaly at least 5 years before inclusion. Unexposed patients (paired for age) had to be cured or controlled at last follow-up without any radiation technique. Patients of both groups were cured or controlled at the last follow-up.

Results

Sixty-four patients were evaluated (27 exposed and 37 unexposed). Mean follow-up after GK was 13 ± 6 years (including 24 patients followed for at least 10 years). While up to 23.8% of the patients of the whole cohort presented at least one abnormal cognitive test, we did not observe any significant difference in neurocognitive function between both groups. During the follow-up, 11 patients presented at least one new pituitary deficiency (P  = 0.009 for thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency with a higher rate in exposed patients), two presented a stroke (1 in each group), and one presented a meningioma (12 years after GK).

Conclusions

While GK exposes patients to a well-known risk of pituitary deficiency, it does not seem to induce long-term cognitive consequences in patients treated for acromegaly.

Open access

Alexandra Dietz de Loos, Geranne Jiskoot, Annemerle Beerthuizen, Jan Busschbach, and Joop Laven

Context

Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Both PCOS and MetS are associated with excess weight.

Objective

To examine the effect of a three-component lifestyle intervention (LSI) with or without short message service (SMS+ or SMS−, respectively) on the prevalence and severity of MetS and metabolic parameters, compared to care as usual (CAU).

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Methods

Women diagnosed with PCOS and a BMI >25 kg/m2 (n = 183) were either assigned to a 1-year three-component (cognitive behavioural therapy, diet, and exercise) LSI, with or without SMS support, or to CAU which provided weight-loss advice only. Main outcome measures included changes in the prevalence of MetS, the continuous MetS severity z-score (cMetS z-score), metabolic parameters, and the impact of weight loss.

Results

After 1 year, the decrease in the cMetS z-score was greater in the SMS+ group than the CAU group (−0.39, P  = 0.015). The prevalence of MetS changed with −21.6% (P  = 0.037), −16.5% (P  = 0.190), and +7.0% (P  = 0.509) in both LSI groups and CAU group, respectively. A post hoc analysis for both LSI groups combined vs CAU resulted in a MetS difference of −25.9% (P  = 0.046). Moreover, weight loss per se resulted in significantly favourable effects on all metabolic parameters.

Conclusions

This three-component LSI was more successful in improving metabolic health compared to CAU. Therefore, we recommend this intervention to women with PCOS and excess weight, provided that a clinically relevant weight loss is being pursued.

Open access

Charlotte J. Green, Thomas Marjot, John Walsby-Tickle, Catriona Charlton, Thomas Cornfield, Felix Westcott, Katherine E Pinnick, Ahmad Moolla, Jonathan M Hazlehurst, James McCullagh, Jeremy W Tomlinson, and Leanne Hodson

Objective:

Metformin is a first-line pharmacotherapy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, a condition closely associated with NAFLD. Although metformin promotes weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity, its effect on intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) remains unclear. We investigated the effect of metformin on IHTG, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and fatty acid (FA) oxidation in vivo in humans.

Design and Methods:

Metabolic investigations, using stable-isotope tracers, were performed in 10 insulin-resistant, overweight/obese human participants with NAFLD who were treatment naïve before and after 12-weeks of metformin treatment. The effect of metformin on markers of subcutaneous adipose tissue FA metabolism and function, along with the plasma metabolome were investigated.

Results:

Twelve weeks treatment with metformin resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and improved insulin sensitivity, but IHTG content and FA oxidation remained unchanged. Metformin treatment was associated with a significant decrease in VLDL-triglyceride (TG) concentrations and a significant increase in the relative contribution of DNL-derived FAs to VLDL-TG. There were subtle and relatively few changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue FA metabolism and the plasma metabolome with metformin treatment.

Conclusions:

We demonstrate the mechanisms of action of metformin whereby it improves insulin sensitivity and promotes weight loss, without improvement in IHTG; these observations are partly, explained through increased hepatic DNL and a lack of change in fatty acid oxidation.

Free access

Alexander A Leung, Janice L Pasieka, Hossein Sadrzadeh, and Gregory A Kline