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Open access

Silje Rafaelsen, Stefan Johansson, Helge Ræder and Robert Bjerknes

Objective

Hereditary hypophosphatemias (HH) are rare monogenic conditions characterized by decreased renal tubular phosphate reabsorption. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, genotypes, phenotypic spectrum, treatment response, and complications of treatment in the Norwegian population of children with HH.

Design

Retrospective national cohort study.

Methods

Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification analysis of PHEX and Sanger sequencing of FGF23, DMP1, ENPP1KL, and FAM20C were performed to assess genotype in patients with HH with or without rickets in all pediatric hospital departments across Norway. Patients with hypercalcuria were screened for SLC34A3 mutations. In one family, exome sequencing was performed. Information from the patients' medical records was collected for the evaluation of phenotype.

Results

Twety-eight patients with HH (18 females and ten males) from 19 different families were identified. X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) was confirmed in 21 children from 13 families. The total number of inhabitants in Norway aged 18 or below by 1st January 2010 was 1 109 156, giving an XLHR prevalence of ∼1 in 60 000 Norwegian children. FAM20C mutations were found in two brothers and SLC34A3 mutations in one patient. In XLHR, growth was compromised in spite of treatment with oral phosphate and active vitamin D compounds, with males tending to be more affected than females. Nephrocalcinosis tended to be slightly more common in patients starting treatment before 1 year of age, and was associated with higher average treatment doses of phosphate. However, none of these differences reached statistical significance.

Conclusions

We present the first national cohort of HH in children. The prevalence of XLHR seems to be lower in Norwegian children than reported earlier.

Open access

Sofia Enhörning, Marketa Sjögren, Bo Hedblad, Peter M Nilsson, Joachim Struck and Olle Melander

Objective

Recently, imbalance in the vasopressin (AVP) system, measured as elevated levels of copeptin (the C-terminal part of the AVP pro-hormone) in plasma, was linked to the development of abdominal obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). Here, we aim to investigate if the genetic variation of the human AVP receptor 1b gene (AVPR1B) is associated with measures of obesity and DM.

Design

Malmö Diet and Cancer study (MDC) is a population-based prospective cohort examined 1991–1996.

Methods

Four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs35810727, rs28373064, rs35439639, rs35608965) of AVPR1B were genotyped in the cardiovascular cohort (n=6103) of MDC (MDC-CC) and associated with measures of obesity and DM. Significant SNPs were replicated in another 24 344 MDC individuals (MDC replication cohort).

Results

In MDC-CC, the major allele of rs35810727 was associated with elevated BMI (β-coefficient±s.e.m.; 0.30±0.14, P=0.03) and waist (0.78±0.36, P=0.03) after age and gender adjustment. The association with BMI was replicated in the MDC replication cohort (0.21±0.07, P=0.003), whereas that with waist was not significant. In MDC-CC there was no association between the major allele of rs35810727 and DM, but in the complete MDC cohort (n=30 447) the major allele of rs35810727 was associated with DM (OR (95% CI); 1.10 (1.00–1.20), P=0.04).

Conclusions

Genetic variance of AVPR1B contributes to overweight. Furthermore, our data indicate a link between AVPR1B variance and DM development. Our data point at a relationship between the disturbance of the pharmacologically modifiable AVP system and the body weight regulation.

Open access

Bridget A Knight, Beverley M Shields, Andrew T Hattersley and Bijay Vaidya

Objective

Subclinical hypothyroidism and isolated hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy have been associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes. We aimed to ascertain if these women have a worse metabolic phenotype than euthyroid pregnant women.

Design, subjects and methods

We recruited 956 healthy Caucasian women with singleton, non-diabetic pregnancies from routine antenatal clinics. Detailed anthropometric measurements (including BMI and skinfold thickness) and fasting blood samples (for TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), HbA1c, lipid profile, plasma glucose and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) analysis) were obtained at 28 weeks gestation.

Results

In comparison to euthyroid women (n=741), women with isolated hypothyroxinaemia (n=82) had significantly increased BMI (29.5 vs 27.5 kg/m2, P<0.001), sum of skinfolds (57.5 vs 51.3 mm, P=0.002), fasting plasma glucose (4.5 vs 4.3 mmol/l, P=0.01), triglycerides (2.3 vs 2.0 mmol/l, P<0.001) and HOMA-IR (2.0 vs 1.3, P=0.001). Metabolic parameters in women with subclinical hypothyroidism (n=133) were similar to those in euthyroid women. Maternal FT4 was negatively associated with BMI (r=−0.22), HbA1c (r=−0.14), triglycerides (r=−0.17), HOMA-IR (r=−0.15) but not total/HDL cholesterol ratio (r=−0.03). Maternal FT3:FT4 ratio was positively associated with BMI (r=0.4), HbA1c (r=0.21), triglycerides (r=0.2), HOMA–IR (r=0.33) and total/HDL cholesterol ratio (r=0.07). TSH was not associated with the metabolic parameters assessed.

Conclusions

Isolated hypothyroxinaemia, but not subclinical hypothyroidism, is associated with adverse metabolic phenotype in pregnancy, as is decreasing maternal FT4 and increasing FT3:FT4 ratio. These associations may be a reflection of changes in the thyroid hormone levels secondary to increase in BMI rather than changes in thyroid hormone levels affecting body weight and related metabolic parameters.

Open access

Armand Valsesia, Pierre Chatelain, Adam Stevens, Valentina A Peterkova, Alicia Belgorosky, Mohamad Maghnie, Franco Antoniazzi, Ekaterina Koledova, Jerome Wojcik, Pierre Farmer, Benoit Destenaves, Peter Clayton and the PREDICT Investigator group

Meta-analysis has shown a modest improvement in first-year growth response to recombinant human GH (r-hGH) for carriers of the exon 3-deleted GH receptor (GHRd3) polymorphism but with significant interstudy variability. The associations between GHRd3 and growth response to r-hGH over 3 years in relation to severity of GH deficiency (GHD) were investigated in patients from 14 countries. Treatment-naïve pre-pubertal children with GHD were enrolled from the PREDICT studies (NCT00256126 and NCT00699855), categorized by peak GH level (peak GH) during provocation test: ≤4 μg/l (severe GHD; n=45) and >4 to <10 μg/l mild GHD; n=49) and genotyped for the GHRd3 polymorphism (full length (fl/fl, fl/d3, d3/d3). Gene expression (GE) profiles were characterized at baseline. Changes in growth (height (cm) and SDS) over 3 years were measured. There was a dichotomous influence of GHRd3 polymorphism on response to r-hGH, dependent on peak GH level. GH peak level (higher vs lower) and GHRd3 (fl/fl vs d3 carriers) combined status was associated with height change over 3 years (P<0.05). GHRd3 carriers with lower peak GH had lower growth than subjects with fl/fl (median difference after 3 years −3.3 cm; −0.3 SDS). Conversely, GHRd3 carriers with higher peak GH had better growth (+2.7 cm; +0.2 SDS). Similar patterns were observed for GH-dependent biomarkers. GE profiles were significantly different between the groups, indicating that the interaction between GH status and GHRd3 carriage can be identified at a transcriptomic level. This study demonstrates that responses to r-hGH depend on the interaction between GHD severity and GHRd3 carriage.

Open access

Karani S Vimaleswaran, Alana Cavadino, Niek Verweij, Ilja M Nolte, Irene Mateo Leach, LifeLines Cohort Study, Juha Auvinen, Juha Veijola, Paul Elliott, Brenda W Penninx, Harold Snieder, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pim van der Harst, Robert D Cohen, Barbara J Boucher and Elina Hyppönen

Background and objective

Given the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes and in the enhancement of protective mechanisms in acute ethanol intake, we hypothesised that UCP2 polymorphisms are likely to cause liver disease through their interactions with obesity and alcohol intake. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the interaction between tagging polymorphisms in the UCP2 gene (rs2306819, rs599277 and rs659366), alcohol intake and obesity traits such as BMI and waist circumference (WC) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) in a large meta-analysis of data sets from three populations (n=20 242).

Design and methods

The study populations included the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n=4996), Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (n=1883) and LifeLines Cohort Study (n=13 363). Interactions between the polymorphisms and obesity and alcohol intake on dichotomised ALT and GGT levels were assessed using logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test.

Results

In the meta-analysis of the three cohorts, none of the three UCP2 polymorphisms were associated with GGT or ALT levels. There was no evidence for interaction between the polymorphisms and alcohol intake on GGT and ALT levels. In contrast, the association of WC and BMI with GGT levels varied by rs659366 genotype (P interaction=0.03 and 0.007, respectively; adjusted for age, gender, high alcohol intake, diabetes, hypertension and serum lipid concentrations).

Conclusion

In conclusion, our findings in 20 242 individuals suggest that UCP2 gene polymorphisms may cause liver dysfunction through the interaction with body fat rather than alcohol intake.

Open access

Conor P Woods, Nicola Argese, Matthew Chapman, Christopher Boot, Rachel Webster, Vijay Dabhi, Ashley B Grossman, Andrew A Toogood, Wiebke Arlt, Paul M Stewart, Rachel K Crowley and Jeremy W Tomlinson

Context

Up to 3% of US and UK populations are prescribed glucocorticoids (GC). Suppression of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis with the potential risk of adrenal crisis is a recognized complication of therapy. The 250 μg short Synacthen stimulation test (SST) is the most commonly used dynamic assessment to diagnose adrenal insufficiency. There are challenges to the use of the SST in routine clinical practice, including both the staff and time constraints and a significant recent increase in Synacthen cost.

Methods

We performed a retrospective analysis to determine the prevalence of adrenal suppression due to prescribed GCs and the utility of a morning serum cortisol for rapid assessment of adrenal reserve in the routine clinical setting.

Results

In total, 2773 patients underwent 3603 SSTs in a large secondary/tertiary centre between 2008 and 2013 and 17.9% (n=496) failed the SST. Of 404 patients taking oral, topical, intranasal or inhaled GC therapy for non-endocrine conditions, 33.2% (n=134) had a subnormal SST response. In patients taking inhaled GCs without additional GC therapy, 20.5% (34/166) failed an SST and suppression of adrenal function increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis in patients currently taking inhaled GCs, a basal cortisol ≥348 nmol/l provided 100% specificity for passing the SST; a cortisol value <34 nmol/l had 100% sensitivity for SST failure. Using these cut-offs, 50% (n=83) of SSTs performed on patients prescribed inhaled GCs were unnecessary.

Conclusion

Adrenal suppression due to GC treatment, particularly inhaled GCs, is common. A basal serum cortisol concentration has utility in helping determine which patients should undergo dynamic assessment of adrenal function.

Open access

Emmanuelle Kuhn, Luigi Maione, Amir Bouchachi, Myriam Rozière, Sylvie Salenave, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, Jacques Young, Peter Kamenicky, Patrick Assayag and Philippe Chanson

Context

The effect of pegvisomant on IGF1 levels in patients with acromegaly is well documented, but little is known of its long-term impact on comorbidity.

Aim

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effects of long-term pegvisomant therapy on cardiorespiratory and metabolic comorbidity in patients with acromegaly.

Patients and methods

We analyzed the long-term (up to 10 years) effect of pegvisomant therapy given alone (n=19, 45%) or in addition to somatostatin analogues and/or cabergoline (n=23, 55%) on echocardiographic, polysomnographic and metabolic parameters in respectively 42, 12 and 26 patients with acromegaly followed in Bicêtre hospital.

Results

At the first cardiac evaluation, 20±16 months after pegvisomant introduction, IGF1 levels normalized in 29 (69%) of the 42 patients. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improved significantly in patients whose basal LVEF was ≤60% and decreased in those whose LVEF was >70%. The left ventricular mass index (LVMi) decreased from 123±25 to 101±21 g/m2 (P<0.05) in the 17 patients with a basal LVMi higher than the median (91 g/m2), while it remained stable in the other patients. Pegvisomant reduced the apnoea–hypopnea index and cured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in four of the eight patients concerned. Long-term follow-up of 22 patients showed continuing improvements in cardiac parameters. The BMI and LDL cholesterol level increased minimally during pegvisomant therapy, and other lipid parameters were not modified.

Conclusions

Long-term pegvisomant therapy not only normalizes IGF1 in a large proportion of patients but also improves cardiac and respiratory comorbidity.

Open access

Orit Cohen-Barak, Anat Sakov, Michele Rasamoelisolo, Merav Bassan, Kurt Brown, Boaz Mendzelevski and Ofer Spiegelstein

Background

TV-1106 (Teva Pharmaceuticals) is a genetically fused recombinant protein of human GH (hGH) and human serum albumin, in development for treatment of GH deficiency (GHD). TV-1106 is expected to have an extended duration of action compared to daily GH treatment and may enable a reduction in the frequency of injections and improve compliance and quality of life for adults and children requiring GHD therapy.

Objective

To assess the safety, local tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TV-1106 following single s.c. injections in healthy male volunteers.

Methods

Subjects (n=56) were assigned to one of seven ascending dose groups (3–100 mg) and received either a single dose of TV-1106 (n=6) or placebo (n=2) by s.c. injection.

Results

Eighteen subjects reported 43 adverse effects (AEs), which were mild to moderate; no serious AEs (SAEs) occurred. In 50, 70 and 100 mg groups there were mild to moderate increases in heart rate and systolic blood pressure that significantly correlated with higher levels of IGF1. TV-1106 showed pharmacokinetic characteristics of a long-acting hGH as demonstrated by a terminal elimination half-life of 23–35 h, delayed time of peak concentration, and systemic levels seen up to 7 days after dosing. IGF1 levels increased in a dose-dependent manner, before reaching a plateau, with levels above baseline extending beyond 7 days post dose.

Conclusion

Single administration of TV-1106 up to 100 mg was safe in healthy volunteers. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics support once-weekly administration in patients with GHD.

Open access

Sebastian JCMM Neggers, Vyacheslav Pronin, Inga Balcere, Moon-Kyu Lee, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Marcello D Bronstein, Mônica R Gadelha, Pascal Maisonobe, Caroline Sert, Aart Jan van der Lely and on behalf of the LEAD Study Group

Objective

To evaluate extended dosing intervals (EDIs) with lanreotide Autogel 120 mg in patients with acromegaly previously biochemically controlled with octreotide LAR 10 or 20 mg.

Design and methods

Patients with acromegaly had received octreotide LAR 10 or 20 mg/4 weeks for ≥6 months and had normal IGF1 levels. Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg was administered every 6 weeks for 24 weeks (phase 1); depending on week-24 IGF1 levels, treatment was then administered every 4, 6 or 8 weeks for a further 24 weeks (phase 2). Hormone levels, patient-reported outcomes and adverse events were assessed. Primary endpoint: proportion of patients on 6- or 8-week EDIs with normal IGF1 levels at week 48 (study end).

Results

107/124 patients completed the study (15 withdrew from phase 1 and two from phase 2). Of 124 patients enrolled, 77.4% were allocated to 6- or 8-week EDIs in phase 2 and 75.8% (95% CI: 68.3–83.3) had normal IGF1 levels at week 48 with the EDI (primary analysis). A total of 88.7% (83.1–94.3) had normal IGF1 levels after 24 weeks with 6-weekly dosing. GH levels were ≤2.5 μg/l in >90% of patients after 24 and 48 weeks. Patient preferences for lanreotide Autogel 120 mg every 4, 6 or 8 weeks over octreotide LAR every 4 weeks were high.

Conclusions

Patients with acromegaly achieving biochemical control with octreotide LAR 10 or 20 mg/4 weeks are possible candidates for lanreotide Autogel 120 mg EDIs. EDIs are effective and well received among such patients.

Open access

Huseyin Demirbilek, Ved Bhushan Arya, Mehmet Nuri Ozbek, Jayne A L Houghton, Riza Taner Baran, Melek Akar, Selahattin Tekes, Heybet Tuzun, Deborah J Mackay, Sarah E Flanagan, Andrew T Hattersley, Sian Ellard and Khalid Hussain

Background

Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of monogenic diabetes and usually presents in the first 6 months of life. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and molecular genetics of a large Turkish cohort of NDM patients from a single centre and estimate an annual incidence rate of NDM in South-Eastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

Design and methods

NDM patients presenting to Diyarbakir Children State Hospital between 2010 and 2013, and patients under follow-up with presumed type 1 diabetes mellitus, with onset before 6 months of age were recruited. Molecular genetic analysis was performed.

Results

Twenty-two patients (59% males) were diagnosed with NDM (TNDM-5; PNDM-17). Molecular genetic analysis identified a mutation in 20 (95%) patients who had undergone a mutation analysis. In transient neonatal diabetes (TNDM) patients, the genetic cause included chromosome 6q24 abnormalities (n=3), ABCC8 (n=1) and homozygous INS (n=1). In permanent neonatal diabetes (PNDM) patients, homozygous GCK (n=6), EIF2AK3 (n=3), PTF1A (n=3), and INS (n=1) and heterozygous KCNJ11 (n=2) mutations were identified. Pancreatic exocrine dysfunction was observed in patients with mutations in the distal PTF1A enhancer. Both patients with a KCNJ11 mutation responded to oral sulphonylurea. A variable phenotype was associated with the homozygous c.-331C>A INS mutation, which was identified in both a PNDM and TNDM patient. The annual incidence of PNDM in South-East Anatolian region of Turkey was one in 48 000 live births.

Conclusions

Homozygous mutations in GCK, EIF2AK3 and the distal enhancer region of PTF1A were the commonest causes of NDM in our cohort. The high rate of detection of a mutation likely reflects the contribution of new genetic techniques (targeted next-generation sequencing) and increased consanguinity within our cohort.