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Open access

A Nordenström, S F Ahmed, E van den Akker, J Blair, M Bonomi, C Brachet, L H A Broersen, H L Claahsen-van der Grinten, A B Dessens, A Gawlik, C H Gravholt, A Juul, C Krausz, T Raivio, A Smyth, P Touraine, D Vitali, and O M Dekkers

An Endo-European Reference Network guideline initiative was launched including 16 clinicians experienced in endocrinology, pediatric and adult and 2 patient representatives. The guideline was endorsed by the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, the European Society for Endocrinology and the European Academy of Andrology. The aim was to create practice guidelines for clinical assessment and puberty induction in individuals with congenital pituitary or gonadal hormone deficiency. A systematic literature search was conducted, and the evidence was graded according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. If the evidence was insufficient or lacking, then the conclusions were based on expert opinion. The guideline includes recommendations for puberty induction with oestrogen or testosterone. Publications on the induction of puberty with follicle-stimulation hormone and human chorionic gonadotrophin in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism are reviewed. Specific issues in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome or androgen insensitivity syndrome are considered. The expert panel recommends that pubertal induction or sex hormone replacement to sustain puberty should be cared for by a multidisciplinary team. Children with a known condition should be followed from the age of 8 years for girls and 9 years for boys. Puberty induction should be individualised but considered at 11 years in girls and 12 years in boys. Psychological aspects of puberty and fertility issues are especially important to address in individuals with sex development disorders or congenital pituitary deficiencies. The transition of these young adults highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, to discuss both medical issues and social and psychological issues that arise in the context of these chronic conditions.

Open access

Kim Huynh, Marianne Klose, Kim Krogsgaard, Jørgen Drejer, Sarah Byberg, Sten Madsbad, Faidon Magkos, Abdellatif Aharaz, Berit Edsberg, Jacob Tfelt-Hansen, Arne Vernon Astrup, and Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

Context

Hypothalamic injury often leads to rapid, intractable weight gain causing hypothalamic obesity, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity and mortality. There are no approved or effective pharmacological treatments for hypothalamic obesity, and conventional lifestyle management remains ineffective.

Objective

To investigate the safety and efficacy of Tesomet (0.5 mg tesofensine/50 mg metoprolol) in adults with hypothalamic obesity.

Methods

Twenty-one adults with hypothalamic obesity (16 females) were randomized to Tesomet (0.5 mg/50 mg) or placebo for 24 weeks. Patients also received diet/lifestyle counselling. The primary endpoint was safety; secondary endpoints included measures of body weight, appetite scores, quality of life, and metabolic profile.

Results

Eighteen patients completed 24 weeks. Consent withdrawal, eligibility, and serious adverse events (SAE) unrelated to treatment resulted in dropouts. One patient experienced a Tesomet-related SAE of exacerbated pre-existing anxiety leading to treatment discontinuation. Tesomet-related adverse events were otherwise mostly mild and included sleep disturbances (Tesomet 50%, placebo 13%), dry mouth (Tesomet 43%, placebo 0%), and headache (Tesomet 36%, placebo 0%). No significant differences in heart rate or blood pressure were observed between groups. Compared to placebo, Tesomet resulted in additional mean (95% CI) weight change of −6.3% ((−11.3; −1.3); P  = 0.017), increased the number of patients achieving ≥5% weight loss (Tesomet 8/13, placebo 1/8; P  = 0.046), and tended to augment the reduction in waist circumference by 5.7 cm ((−0.1; 11.5); P  = 0.054).

Conclusion

Tesomet was welltolerated, did not affect heart rate or blood pressure, and resulted in significant reductions in body weight compared to placebo in adults with hypothalamic obesity.

Open access

Margaret C S Boguszewski, Cesar L Boguszewski, Wassim Chemaitilly, Laurie E Cohen, Judith Gebauer, Claire Higham, Andrew R Hoffman, Michel Polak, Kevin C J Yuen, Nathalie Alos, Zoltan Antal, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverley M K Biller, George Brabant, Catherine S Y Choong, Stefano Cianfarani, Peter E Clayton, Regis Coutant, Adriane A Cardoso-Demartini, Alberto Fernandez, Adda Grimberg, Kolbeinn Guðmundsson, Jaime Guevara-Aguirre, Ken K Y Ho, Reiko Horikawa, Andrea M Isidori, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Peter Kamenicky, Niki Karavitaki, John J Kopchick, Maya Lodish, Xiaoping Luo, Ann I McCormack, Lillian Meacham, Shlomo Melmed, Sogol Mostoufi Moab, Hermann L Müller, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Manoel H Aguiar Oliveira, Keiichi Ozono, Patricia A Pennisi, Vera Popovic, Sally Radovick, Lars Savendahl, Philippe Touraine, Hanneke M van Santen, and Gudmundur Johannsson

Growth hormone (GH) has been used for over 35 years, and its safety and efficacy has been studied extensively. Experimental studies showing the permissive role of GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in carcinogenesis have raised concerns regarding the safety of GH replacement in children and adults who have received treatment for cancer and those with intracranial and pituitary tumours. A consensus statement was produced to guide decision-making on GH replacement in children and adult survivors of cancer, in those treated for intracranial and pituitary tumours and in patients with increased cancer risk. With the support of the European Society of Endocrinology, the Growth Hormone Research Society convened a Workshop, where 55 international key opinion leaders representing 10 professional societies were invited to participate. This consensus statement utilized: (1) a critical review paper produced before the Workshop, (2) five plenary talks, (3) evidence-based comments from four breakout groups, and (4) discussions during report-back sessions. Current evidence reviewed from the proceedings from the Workshop does not support an association between GH replacement and primary tumour or cancer recurrence. The effect of GH replacement on secondary neoplasia risk is minor compared to host- and tumour treatment-related factors. There is no evidence for an association between GH replacement and increased mortality from cancer amongst GH-deficient childhood cancer survivors. Patients with pituitary tumour or craniopharyngioma remnants receiving GH replacement do not need to be treated or monitored differently than those not receiving GH. GH replacement might be considered in GH-deficient adult cancer survivors in remission after careful individual risk/benefit analysis. In children with cancer predisposition syndromes, GH treatment is generally contraindicated but may be considered cautiously in select patients.

Open access

Jakob Skov, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Patrik K E Magnusson, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Olle Kämpe, and Sophie Bensing

Objective

Type 1 diabetes and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis frequently cluster in individuals and in families, indicating shared origins. The objective of this study was to investigate familial co-aggregation of these diseases and to quantify shared genetic and environmental factors.

Design

This study is a twin cohort study.

Methods

National health registers were used to identify cases among 110 814 Swedish twins. Co-aggregation was calculated as risk ratios for type 1 diabetes among co-twins of individuals with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and vice-versa. Variance explained by genetics (i.e. heritability), and the proportions thereof shared between the diseases, was estimated by contrasting associations in monozygotic and dizygotic twins using structural equation models.

Results

Individuals with one disease were at a high risk for the other disease (adjusted risk ratio: 11.4 (95% CI: 8.5–15.3)). Co-aggregation was more common in monozygotic than in dizygotic pairs, with adjusted risk ratios of 7.0 (95% CI: 3.2–15.1) and 1.7 (95% CI: 0.7–4.1), respectively. Genetic effects shared across diseases accounted for 11% of the variance for type 1 diabetes and 9% of the variance for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, while environmental factors unique to individual twins, but shared across diseases, accounted for 10% of the variance for type 1 diabetes and 18% of the variance for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

Conclusions

Both genes and environment unique to individual twins contribute to considerable etiologic overlap between type 1 diabetes and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. These findings add to the current knowledge on the mechanisms behind autoimmune disease clustering and could guide future research aimed at identifying pathophysiological mechanisms and intervention targets.

Open access

Anne Jouinot, Juliane Lippert, Mathilde Sibony, Florian Violon, Lindsay Jeanpierre, Daniel De Murat, Roberta Armignacco, Amandine Septier, Karine Perlemoine, Franck Letourneur, Brigitte Izac, Bruno Ragazzon, Karen Leroy, Eric Pasmant, Marie-Odile North, Sébastien Gaujoux, Bertrand Dousset, Lionel Groussin, Rossella Libe, Benoit Terris, Martin Fassnacht, Cristina L Ronchi, Jérôme Bertherat, and Guillaume Assie

Design

Molecular classification is important for the diagnosis and prognosis of adrenocortical tumors (ACT). Transcriptome profiles separate adrenocortical adenomas ‘C2’ from carcinomas, and identify two groups of carcinomas ‘C1A’ and ‘C1B’, of poor and better prognosis respectively. However, many ACT cannot be profiled because of improper or absent freezing procedures, a mandatory requirement so far. The main aim was to determine transcriptome profiles on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples, using the new 3’-end RNA-sequencing technology. A secondary aim was to demonstrate the ability of this technique to explore large FFPE archives, by focusing on the rare oncocytic ACT variants.

Methods

We included 131 ACT: a training cohort from Cochin hospital and an independent validation cohort from Wuerzburg hospital. The 3’ transcriptome was generated from FFPE samples using QuantSeq (Lexogen, Vienna, Austria) and NextSeq500 (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA).

Results

In the training cohort, unsupervised clustering identified three groups: ‘C1A’ aggressive carcinomas (n = 28, 29%), ‘C1B’ more indolent carcinomas (n = 28, 29%), and ‘C2’ adenomas (n = 39, 41%). The prognostic value of FFPE transcriptome was confirmed in the validation cohort (5-year OS: 26% in ‘C1A’ (n = 26) and 100% in ‘C1B’ (n = 10), P  = 0.003). FFPE transcriptome was an independent prognostic factor in a multivariable model including tumor stage and Ki-67 (OS HR: 7.5, P  = 0.01). Oncocytic ACT (n = 19) did not form any specific cluster. Oncocytic carcinomas (n = 6) and oncocytic ACT of uncertain malignant potential (n = 4) were all in ‘C1B’.

Conclusions

The 3’ RNA-sequencing represents a convenient solution for determining ACT molecular class from FFPE samples. This technique should facilitate routine use and large retrospective studies.

Open access

Veronica Mericq, Isabel Huang-Doran, Dhekra Al-Naqeb, Javiera Basaure, Claudia Castiglioni, Christiaan de Bruin, Yvonne Hendriks, Enrico Bertini, Fowzan S Alkuraya, Monique Losekoot, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Robert K Semple, and Jan M Wit

Objective

To describe clinical, laboratory, and genetic characteristics of three unrelated cases from Chile, Portugal, and Saudi Arabia with severe insulin resistance, SOFT syndrome, and biallelic pathogenic POC1A variants.

Design

Observational study.

Methods

Probands’ phenotypes, including short stature, dysmorphism, and insulin resistance, were compared with previous reports.

Results

Cases 1 (female) and 3 (male) were homozygous for known pathogenic POC1A variants: c.649C>T, p.(Arg217Trp) and c.241C>T, p.(Arg81*), respectively. Case 2 (male) was compound heterozygous for p.(Arg217Trp) variant and the rare missense variant c.370G>A, p.(Asp124Asn). All three cases exhibited severe insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, elevated serum triglycerides and decreased HDL, and fatty liver, resembling three previously reported cases. All three also reported severe muscle cramps. Aggregate analysis of the six known cases with biallelic POC1A variants and insulin resistance showed decreased birth weight and length mean (s.d.): −2.8 (0.9) and −3.7 (0.9) SDS, respectively), severe short stature mean (s.d.) height: −4.9 (1.7) SDS) and moderate microcephaly (mean occipitofrontal circumference −3.0 (range: −4.7 to −1.2)). These findings were similar to those reported for patients with SOFT syndrome without insulin resistance. Muscle biopsy in Case 3 showed features of muscle involvement secondary to a neuropathic process.

Conclusions

Patients with SOFT syndrome can develop severe dyslipidaemic insulin resistance, independent of the exonic position of the POC1A variant. They also can develop severe muscle cramps. After diagnosis, patients should be regularly screened for insulin resistance and muscle complaints.

Open access

Esra Arslan Ates, Mehmet Eltan, Bahadir Sahin, Busra Gurpinar Tosun, Tuba Seven Menevse, Bilgen Bilge Geckinli, Andy Greenfield, Serap Turan, Abdullah Bereket, and Tulay Guran

Background

The human INHA gene encodes the inhibin subunit alpha protein, which is common to both inhibin A and B. The functional importance of inhibins in male sex development, sexual function, and reproduction remain largely unknown.

Objective

We report for the first time two male siblings with homozygous INHAmutations.

Methods

The medical files were examined for clinical, biochemical, and imaging data. Genetic analysis was performed using next-generation and Sanger sequencing methods.

Results

Two brothers complained of gynecomastia, testicular pain, and had a history of hypospadias. Biochemistry revealed low serum testosterone, high gonadotropin and anti-Mullerian hormone, and very low/undetectable inhibin concentrations, where available. Both patients had azoospermia in the spermiogram. We have identified a homozygous 2 bp deletion (c.208_209delAG, R70Gfs*3) variant, which leads to a truncated INHA protein in both patients, and confirmed heterozygosity in the parents. The external genital development, pubertal onset and progression, reproductive functions, serum gonadotropins, and sex hormones of mother and father, who were heterozygous carriers of the identified mutation, were normal.

Conclusion

Homozygosity for INHA mutations causes decreased prenatal and postnatal testosterone production and infertility in males, while the heterozygous female and male carriers of INHA mutations do not have any abnormality in sex development and reproduction.

Open access

Clement N Kufe, Lisa K Micklesfield, Maphoko Masemola, Tinashe Chikowore, Andre P Kengne, Fredrik Karpe, Shane A Norris, Nigel J Crowther, Tommy Olsson, and Julia H Goedecke

Aims

Despite a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity in Black South African women compared to men, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) does not differ. We explored if this could be due to sex differences in insulin sensitivity, clearance and/or beta-cell function and also sex-specific associations with total and regional adiposity.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 804 Black South African men (n = 388) and women (n = 416). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure total and regional adiposity. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), secretion (C-peptide index) and clearance (C-peptide/insulin ratio) were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test.

Results

After adjusting for sex differences in the fat mass index, men were less insulin sensitive and had lower beta-cell function than women (P  < 0.001), with the strength of the associations with measures of total and central adiposity being greater in men than women (P  < 0.001 for interactions). Further, the association between total adiposity and T2D risk was also greater in men than women (relative risk ratio (95% CI): 2.05 (1.42–2.96), P  < 0.001 vs 1.38 (1.03–1.85), P = 0.031).

Conclusion

With increasing adiposity, particularly increased centralisation of body fat linked to decreased insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, Black African men are at greater risk for T2D than their female counterparts.

Open access

Connar S J Westgate, Keira Markey, James L Mitchell, Andreas Yiangou, Rishi Singhal, Paul Stewart, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Gareth G Lavery, Susan P Mollan, and Alexandra J Sinclair

Context

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disease of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) of unknown aetiology. Reductions in glucocorticoid metabolism are associated with improvements in IIH disease activity. The basal IIH glucocorticoid metabolism yet to be assessed.

Objective

To determine the basal glucocorticoid phenotype in IIH and assess the effects of weight loss on the IIH glucocorticoid phenotype.

Design

A retrospective case-control study and a separate exploratory analysis of a prospective randomised intervention study.

Methods

The case-control study compared female IIH patients to body mass index, age, and sex-matched controls. The randomised intervention study, different IIH patients were randomized to either a community weight management intervention, or bariatric surgery, with patients assessed at baseline and 12 months. Glucocorticoid levels were determined utilising 24-hour urinary steroid profiles alongside the measurement of adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 activity.

Results

Compared to control subjects, patients with active IIH had increased systemic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) and 5α-reductase activity. The intervention study demonstrated that weight loss following bariatric surgery reduced systemic 11β-HSD1 and 5α-reductase activity. Reductions in these were associated with reduced ICP. Subcutaneous adipose tissue explants demonstrated elevated 11β-HSD1 activity compared to samples from matched controls.

Conclusion

We demonstrate that in IIH, there is a phenotype of elevated systemic and adipose 11β-HSD1 activity in excess to that mediated by obesity. Bariatric surgery to induce weight loss was associated with reductions in 11β-HSD1 activity and decreased ICP. These data reflect new insights into the IIH phenotype and further point towards metabolic dysregulation as a feature of IIH.

Open access

Christina Wenzek, Anita Boelen, Astrid M Westendorf, Daniel R Engel, Lars C Moeller, and Dagmar Führer

Over the past few years, growing evidence suggests direct crosstalk between thyroid hormones (THs) and the immune system. Components of the immune system were proposed to interfere with the central regulation of systemic TH levels. Conversely, THs regulate innate and adaptive immune responses as immune cells are direct target cells of THs. Accordingly, they express different components of local TH action, such as TH transporters or receptors, but our picture of the interplay between THs and the immune system is still incomplete. This review provides a critical overview of current knowledge regarding the interaction of THs and the immune system with the main focus on local TH action within major innate and adaptive immune cell subsets. Thereby, this review aims to highlight open issues which might help to infer the clinical relevance of THs in host defence in the context of different types of diseases such as infection, ischemic organ injury or cancer.