Hypophosphataemic rickets (HR) comprise a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of conditions, defined by renal-tubular phosphate wasting and consecutive loss of bone mineralisation. X-linked hypophosphataemia (XLH) is the most common form, caused by inactivating dominant mutations in PHEX, a gene encompassing 22 exons located at Xp22.1. XLH is treatable by anti-Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 antibody, while for other forms of HR such as therapy may not be indicated. Therefore, a genetic differentiation of HR is recommended.
To develop and validate a next-generation sequencing panel for HR with special focus on PHEX.
Design and methods:
We designed an AmpliSeq gene panel for the IonTorrent PGM next-generation platform for PHEX and ten other HR-related genes. For validation of PHEX sequencing 50 DNA-samples from XLH-patients, in whom 42 different mutations in PHEX and 1 structural variation have been proven before, were blinded, anonymised and investigated with the NGS panel. In addition, we analyzed one known homozygous DMP1 mutation and two samples of HR-patients, where no pathogenic PHEX mutation had been detected by conventional sequencing.
The panel detected all 42 pathogenic missense/nonsense/splice-site/indel PHEX-mutations and in one the known homozygous DMP1 mutation. In the remaining two patients, we revealed a somatic mosaicism of a PHEX mutation in one; as well as two variations in DMP1 and a very rare compound heterozygous variation in ENPP1 in the second patient.
This developed NGS panel is a reliable tool with high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of XLH and related forms of HR.