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David J Handelsman, Reena Desai, Ann J Conway, Nandini Shankara-Narayana, Bronwyn G A Stuckey, Warrick J Inder, Mathis Grossmann, Bu Beng Yeap, David Jesudason, Lam P Ly, Karen Bracken, and Gary Allen Wittert

Context

The time course of male reproductive hormone recovery after stopping injectable testosterone undecanoate (TU) treatment is not known.

Objective

The aim of this study was to investigate the rate, extent, and determinants of reproductive hormone recovery over 12 months after stopping TU injections.

Materials and Methods

Men (n = 303) with glucose intolerance but without pathologic hypogonadism who completed a 2-year placebo (P)-controlled randomized clinical trial of TU treatment were recruited for further 12 months while remaining blinded to treatment. Sex steroids (testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol, oestrone) by liquid chromatography-mass sprectometry, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) by immunoassays and sexual function questionnaires (Psychosexual Diary Questionnaire, International Index of Erectile Function, and short form survey (SF-12)) were measured at entry (3 months after the last injection) and 6, 12, 18, 24, 40, and 52 weeks later.

Results

In the nested cohort of TU-treated men, serum T was initially higher but declined at 12 weeks remaining stable thereafter with serum T and SHBG at 11 and 13%, respectively, lower than P-treated men. Similarly, both questionnaires showed initial carry-over higher scores in T-treated men but after 18 weeks showed no difference between T- and P-treated men. Initially, fully suppressed serum LH and FSH recovered slowly towards the participant’s own pre-treatment baseline over 12 months since the last injection.

Conclusions

After stopping 2 years of 1000 mg injectable TU treatment, full reproductive hormone recovery is slow and progressive over 15 months since the last testosterone injection but may take longer than 12 months to be complete. Persistent proportionate reduction in serum SHBG and T reflects lasting exogenous T effects on hepatic SHBG secretion rather than androgen deficiency.

Open access

Nellie Y Loh, Edward Humphreys, Fredrik Karpe, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Raymond Noordam, and Constantinos Christodoulides

Objective

Epidemiological and clinical studies have highlighted important roles for sex hormones in the regulation of fat distribution and systemic metabolism. We investigated the bidirectional associations between bioavailable serum testosterone (BioT) in both sexes and oestradiol (E2) in men and adiposity and metabolic traits using Mendelian randomisation (MR).

Design and Methods

As genetic instruments for sex hormones, we selected all the genome-wide significant, independent signals from a genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in up to 425 097 European ancestry UK Biobank participants. European population-specific, summary-level data for adiposity, metabolic, and blood pressure traits were obtained from the largest publicly available GWAS. Sex-specific, two-sample MR analyses were used to estimate the associations of sex hormones with these traits and vice versa.

Results

In women, higher BioT was associated with obesity, upper-body fat distribution, and low HDL-cholesterol although, based on analyses modelling the sex hormone-binding globulin-independent effects of BioT, the last two associations might be indirect. Conversely, obesity and android fat distribution were associated with elevated serum BioT. In men, higher BioT was associated with lower hip circumference and lower fasting glucose. Reciprocally, obesity was associated with lower BioT and higher E2, while upper-body fat distribution and raised triglycerides were associated with lower E2.

Conclusions

Adipose tissue and metabolic dysfunction are associated with deranged sex hormone levels in both sexes. In women, elevated BioT might be a cause of obesity. Conversely, in men, higher BioT appears to have beneficial effects on adiposity and glucose metabolism.

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Eliza B Geer, John L Kilgallon, Karen J P Liebert, Allison Kimball, and Lisa B Nachtigall

Objectives

To assess the impact of virtual education programming for patients with acromegaly.

Design

We conducted a mixed methods study to evaluate patient attitudes, examine if patient-centered educational forums change these attitudes, and determine the role of virtual education as a means to learn about patients’ unmet needs, self-reported outcomes, and educational priorities.

Methods

The study included 653 total virtual program registrants. Of these, 78 patients with acromegaly were included in the analysis. The programs consisted of patient-centered livestream education by a multidisciplinary team of pituitary experts and patient presenters. Multiple-choice questions were used to assess attitudes before and after the event, and short answer surveys were used to collect care goals and unmet needs related to treatment.

Results

Attendance included participants from 37 countries. The number of patients who responded that they had no hope for improvement, had no choice in their treatment, and felt alone living with acromegaly each decreased significantly pre- to post-event (P  < 0.05). The number of patients who felt anxious about their acromegaly diagnosis remained unchanged. ‘Quality of life/mental health’ was the most common personal care goals concern followed by ‘medical therapies/tumor control.’ Perceived acromegaly unmet needs were evenly distributed, with five of six categories reported by over 20% of patients.

Conclusion

Our findings indicate that virtual education may have a significant positive effect on acromegaly patients’ perceptions of their disease. The lessons learned from these virtual programs may be used to inform future virtual education programming for acromegaly and other rare diseases.

Open access

Wiebke Schloetelburg, Ines Ebert, Bernhard Petritsch, Andreas Max Weng, Ulrich Dischinger, Stefan Kircher, Andreas Konrad Buck, Thorsten Alexander Bley, Timo Deutschbein, and Martin Fassnacht

Objective

Reliable results of wash-out CT in the diagnostic workup of adrenal incidentalomas are scarce. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of delayed wash-out CT and determined thresholds to accurately differentiate adrenal masses.

Design

Retrospective, single-center cohort study including 216 patients with 252 adrenal lesions who underwent delayed wash-out CT. Definitive diagnoses based on histopathology (n = 92) or comprehensive follow-up.

Methods

Size, average attenuation values of the adrenal lesions in all CT scan phases, and absolute and relative percentage wash-out (APW/RPW) were determined by an expert radiologist blinded for clinical data. Adrenal lesions with unenhanced attenuation values >10 Hounsfield units (HU) built a subgroup (n = 142). Diagnostic accuracy was calculated.

Results

The study group consisted of 171 adenomas, 32 other benign tumors, 11 pheochromocytomas, 9 adrenocortical carcinomas, and 29 other malignant tumors. All (potentially) malignant and 46% of benign lesions showed unenhanced attenuation values >10 HU. In this most relevant subgroup, the established thresholds of 60% for APW and 40% for RPW misclassified 35.9 and 35.2% of the masses, respectively. When we applied optimized cutoffs (APW >83%; RPW >58%) and excluded pheochromocytomas, we missed only one malignant tumor by APW and none by RPW. However, only 11 and 15% of the benign tumors were correctly identified.

Conclusions

Wash-out CT with the established thresholds for APW and RPW is insufficient to reliably diagnose adrenal masses. Using the proposed cutoff of 58% for RPW, malignant tumors will be correctly identified, but the added value is limited, namely 15% of patients with benign tumors can be prevented from additional imaging or even unnecessary surgery.

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Sahar Mohseni-Takalloo, Sara Beigrezaei, Zeinab Yazdanpanah, Seyede Hamide Rajaie, Sepideh Soltani, Tayebeh Zohrabi, Mojtaba Kaviani, Scott C Forbes, Julien S Baker, and Amin Salehi-Abargouei

Objective

There is no consensus of opinion if exercise beneficially affects sex hormones if added to weight-loss diets. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of adding exercise to a hypo-caloric diet during a weight-loss program, on serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in adults with overweight/obesity.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

Methods

Online databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2021. A random-effects model was applied to compare mean changes in sex hormones and SHBG between participants undergoing a hypo-caloric diet with or without exercise.

Results

In total, 9 eligible clinical trials with 462 participants were included. Out of these, seven, three, and four studies illustrated changes in testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG, respectively. The meta-analysis revealed that exercise had no significant effect on circulating testosterone (WMD = −0.03 nmol/L, 95% CI: −0.11, 0.06, P = 0.51), estradiol (WMD = −0.46 pg/mL, 95% CI: −1.57, 0.65, P = 0.42), and SHBG (WMD = 0.54 nmol/L, 95% CI: −2.63, 3.71, P = 0.74) when added to low-calorie diets.

Conclusion

The addition of exercise to a hypo-caloric diet provided no additional improvement in sex hormone profiles. Further, well-designed randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods in both sexes are recommended to confirm and expand the current results.

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Antoine Tabarin, Magalie Haissaguerre, Hélène Lassole, Arnaud Jannin, Anne-Cecile Paepegaey, Olivier Chabre, and Jacques Young

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Athina Markou, Gregory A Kaltsas, Labrini Papanastasiou, Chris Gravvanis, Nick Voulgaris, Georgia Kanti, George N Zografos, George P Chrousos, and Georgios Piaditis

Objective

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the commonest cause of endocrine hypertension ranging from 4.6 to 16.6% according to the diagnostic tests employed. The aim of this study was to compare the traditional saline infusion test (SIT) with the modified post-dexamethasone saline infusion test (DSIT) by applying both tests on the same subjects.

Methods

We studied 68 patients (72% hypertensives) with single adrenal adenoma and 55 normotensive controls with normal adrenal imaging. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured and the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) was calculated. Using the mean ± 2 s.d. values from the controls, we defined the upper normal limits for cortisol, aldosterone, and PRC for both the SIT and DSIT.

Results

In the controls, the post-DSIT aldosterone levels and the ARR were approximately two-fold and three-fold lower, respectively, than the corresponding post-SIT values (all P  = 0.001) leading to lower cut-offs of aldosterone suppression. Applying these cut-offs to patients with adrenal adenomas, the prevalence of PA was 13.2% following the SIT and 29.4% following the DSIT, respectively. In addition, 54.5% of patients with PA had concomitant autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS). Targeted treatment of PA resulted in resolution of hypertension and restoration of normal secretory aldosterone dynamics.

Conclusions

The DSIT improves the diagnostic accuracy of PA, allowing for the detection of milder forms of PA in patients with adrenal adenomas. This is of particular importance as such patients may be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and renal morbidity that could be enhanced in the presence of concomitant ACS.

Open access

Jens Bollerslev, Lars Rejnmark, Alexandra Zahn, Ansgar Heck, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra, Luis Cardoso, Fadil M Hannan, Filomena Cetani, Tanja Sikjaer, Anna Maria Formenti, Sigridur Björnsdottir, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Zhanna Belaya, Fraser Gibb, Bruno Lapauw, Karin Amrein, Corinna Wicke, Corinna Grasemann, Michael Krebs, Eeva Ryhänen, Özer Makay, Salvatore Minisola, Sébastien Gaujoux, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Zaki Hassan-Smith, Agnès Linglart, Elizabeth M Winter, Martina Kollmann, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Elena Tsourdi, Stefan Pilz, Heide Siggelkow, Neil Gittoes, Claudio Marcocci, Peter Kamenický, and the 2021 PARAT Working Group

This European expert consensus statement provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults (HypoPT), and parathyroid disorders in relation to pregnancy and lactation. Specified areas of interest and unmet needs identified by experts at the second ESE Educational Program of Parathyroid Disorders in 2019 were discussed during two virtual workshops in 2021 and subsequently developed by working groups with interest in the specified areas. PHPT is a common endocrine disease. However, its differential diagnosis of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), the definition and clinical course of normocalcemic PHPT, and the optimal management of its recurrence after surgery represents areas of uncertainty requiring clarifications. HypoPT is an orphan disease characterized by low calcium concentrations due to insufficient PTH secretion, most often secondary to neck surgery. Prevention and prediction of surgical injury to the parathyroid glands are essential to limit the disease-related burden. Long-term treatment modalities including the place for PTH replacement therapy and the optimal biochemical monitoring and imaging surveillance for complications to treatment in chronic HypoPT need to be refined. The physiological changes in calcium metabolism occurring during pregnancy and lactation modify the clinical presentation and management of parathyroid disorders in these periods of life. Modern interdisciplinary approaches to PHPT and HypoPT in pregnant and lactating women and their newborn children are proposed. The recommendations on clinical management presented here will serve as background for further educational material aimed at a broader clinical audience and were developed with the focus on endocrinologists in training.

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Sofie Hædersdal, Asger Lund, Henrik Maagensen, Elisabeth Nielsen-Hannerup, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Mette M Rosenkilde, Julie L Forman, Gerrit van Hall, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, and Tina Vilsbøll

Objective

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology includes fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which has been linked to hyperglycemia via increased endogenous glucose production (EGP). We used a glucagon receptor antagonist (LY2409021) and stable isotope tracer infusions to investigate the consequences of hyperglucagonemia in T2D.

Design

A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted.

Methods

Ten patients with T2D and ten matched non-diabetic controls underwent two liquid mixed meal tests preceded by single-dose administration of LY2409021 (100 mg) or placebo. Double-tracer technique was used to quantify EGP. Antagonist selectivity toward related incretin receptors was determined in vitro.

Results

Compared to placebo, LY2409021 lowered the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) from 9.1 to 7.1 mmol/L in patients and from 5.6 to 5.0 mmol/L in controls (both P < 0.001) by mechanisms involving reduction of EGP. Postprandial plasma glucose excursions (baseline-subtracted area under the curve) were unaffected by LY2409021 in patients and increased in controls compared to placebo. Glucagon concentrations more than doubled during glucagon receptor antagonism. The antagonist interfered with both glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptors, complicating the interpretation of the postprandial data.

Conclusions

LY2409021 lowered FPG concentrations but did not improve postprandial glucose tolerance after a meal in patients with T2D and controls. The metabolic consequences of postprandial hyperglucagonemia are difficult to evaluate using LY2409021 because of its antagonizing effects on the incretin receptors.

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Daniele Cappellani, Alessandro Brancatella, Riccardo Morganti, Simona Borsari, Fulvia Baldinotti, Maria Adelaide Caligo, Martin Kaufmann, Glenville Jones, Claudio Marcocci, and Filomena Cetani

Background and objectives

CYP24A1 encodes a 24-hydroxylase involved in vitamin D catabolism, whose loss-of-function results in vitamin D-dependent hypercalcemia. Since the identification of CYP24A1 variants as a cause of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, a large body of literature has emerged indicating heterogeneity in penetrance, symptoms, biochemistry, and treatments. The objectives of the present research work were to investigate the clinical heterogeneity of the disease, the possibility of a relevant phenotype for monoallelic carriers, and to compare the hypocalcemic effect of the available therapies.

Methods

Two reviewers searched different databases for studies published between the identification of CYP24A1 variants and December 31, 2020. Eligible studies included clinical trials and reports describing carriers of CYP24A1 variants.

Results

Fifty eligible studies were identified, accounting for 221 patients. Genetic data were retrieved and allele frequencies were calculated. Acute hypercalcemia was the typical presentation during the first year of life (76%, P = 0.0005), and nephrocalcinosis was more frequent in infancy (P < 0.0001). Pregnancy was associated with symptomatic hypercalcemia in 81.8% and high rates of obstetric complications. Monoallelic carriers displayed significant rates of nephrolithiasis (19.4%), nephrocalcinosis (4.9%), and symptomatic hypercalcemia (5.6%).

Conclusions

CYP24A1 loss-of-function results in an age-dependent phenotype, which can be exacerbated by triggering factors, such as pregnancy. Although biallelic carriers present more significant clinical and biochemical features, monoallelic carriers have an increased risk of calcium-related conditions. The highly variable tested therapeutic approaches did not allow to draw conclusions on preferable therapeutic regime.