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Athina Markou, Gregory A Kaltsas, Labrini Papanastasiou, Chris Gravvanis, Nick Voulgaris, Georgia Kanti, George N Zografos, George P Chrousos, and Georgios Piaditis

Objective

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the commonest cause of endocrine hypertension ranging from 4.6 to 16.6% according to the diagnostic tests employed. The aim of this study was to compare the traditional saline infusion test (SIT) with the modified post-dexamethasone saline infusion test (DSIT) by applying both tests on the same subjects.

Methods

We studied 68 patients (72% hypertensives) with single adrenal adenoma and 55 normotensive controls with normal adrenal imaging. Serum cortisol, aldosterone, and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured and the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) was calculated. Using the mean ± 2 s.d. values from the controls, we defined the upper normal limits for cortisol, aldosterone, and PRC for both the SIT and DSIT.

Results

In the controls, the post-DSIT aldosterone levels and the ARR were approximately two-fold and three-fold lower, respectively, than the corresponding post-SIT values (all P  = 0.001) leading to lower cut-offs of aldosterone suppression. Applying these cut-offs to patients with adrenal adenomas, the prevalence of PA was 13.2% following the SIT and 29.4% following the DSIT, respectively. In addition, 54.5% of patients with PA had concomitant autonomous cortisol secretion (ACS). Targeted treatment of PA resulted in resolution of hypertension and restoration of normal secretory aldosterone dynamics.

Conclusions

The DSIT improves the diagnostic accuracy of PA, allowing for the detection of milder forms of PA in patients with adrenal adenomas. This is of particular importance as such patients may be at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular and renal morbidity that could be enhanced in the presence of concomitant ACS.

Open access

Jens Bollerslev, Lars Rejnmark, Alexandra Zahn, Ansgar Heck, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra, Luis Cardoso, Fadil M Hannan, Filomena Cetani, Tanja Sikjaer, Anna Maria Formenti, Sigridur Björnsdottir, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Zhanna Belaya, Fraser Gibb, Bruno Lapauw, Karin Amrein, Corinna Wicke, Corinna Grasemann, Michael Krebs, Eeva Ryhänen, Özer Makay, Salvatore Minisola, Sébastien Gaujoux, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Zaki Hassan-Smith, Agnès Linglart, Elizabeth M Winter, Martina Kollmann, Hans-Georg Zmierczak, Elena Tsourdi, Stefan Pilz, Heide Siggelkow, Neil Gittoes, Claudio Marcocci, Peter Kamenický, and the 2021 PARAT Working Group

This European expert consensus statement provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), chronic hypoparathyroidism in adults (HypoPT), and parathyroid disorders in relation to pregnancy and lactation. Specified areas of interest and unmet needs identified by experts at the second ESE Educational Program of Parathyroid Disorders in 2019 were discussed during two virtual workshops in 2021 and subsequently developed by working groups with interest in the specified areas. PHPT is a common endocrine disease. However, its differential diagnosis of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), the definition and clinical course of normocalcemic PHPT, and the optimal management of its recurrence after surgery represents areas of uncertainty requiring clarifications. HypoPT is an orphan disease characterized by low calcium concentrations due to insufficient PTH secretion, most often secondary to neck surgery. Prevention and prediction of surgical injury to the parathyroid glands are essential to limit the disease-related burden. Long-term treatment modalities including the place for PTH replacement therapy and the optimal biochemical monitoring and imaging surveillance for complications to treatment in chronic HypoPT need to be refined. The physiological changes in calcium metabolism occurring during pregnancy and lactation modify the clinical presentation and management of parathyroid disorders in these periods of life. Modern interdisciplinary approaches to PHPT and HypoPT in pregnant and lactating women and their newborn children are proposed. The recommendations on clinical management presented here will serve as background for further educational material aimed at a broader clinical audience and were developed with the focus on endocrinologists in training.

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Sofie Hædersdal, Asger Lund, Henrik Maagensen, Elisabeth Nielsen-Hannerup, Lærke S Gasbjerg, Mette M Rosenkilde, Julie L Forman, Gerrit van Hall, Jens J Holst, Filip K Knop, and Tina Vilsbøll

Objective

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology includes fasting and postprandial hyperglucagonemia, which has been linked to hyperglycemia via increased endogenous glucose production (EGP). We used a glucagon receptor antagonist (LY2409021) and stable isotope tracer infusions to investigate the consequences of hyperglucagonemia in T2D.

Design

A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted.

Methods

Ten patients with T2D and ten matched non-diabetic controls underwent two liquid mixed meal tests preceded by single-dose administration of LY2409021 (100 mg) or placebo. Double-tracer technique was used to quantify EGP. Antagonist selectivity toward related incretin receptors was determined in vitro.

Results

Compared to placebo, LY2409021 lowered the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) from 9.1 to 7.1 mmol/L in patients and from 5.6 to 5.0 mmol/L in controls (both P < 0.001) by mechanisms involving reduction of EGP. Postprandial plasma glucose excursions (baseline-subtracted area under the curve) were unaffected by LY2409021 in patients and increased in controls compared to placebo. Glucagon concentrations more than doubled during glucagon receptor antagonism. The antagonist interfered with both glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptors, complicating the interpretation of the postprandial data.

Conclusions

LY2409021 lowered FPG concentrations but did not improve postprandial glucose tolerance after a meal in patients with T2D and controls. The metabolic consequences of postprandial hyperglucagonemia are difficult to evaluate using LY2409021 because of its antagonizing effects on the incretin receptors.

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Daniele Cappellani, Alessandro Brancatella, Riccardo Morganti, Simona Borsari, Fulvia Baldinotti, Maria Adelaide Caligo, Martin Kaufmann, Glenville Jones, Claudio Marcocci, and Filomena Cetani

Background and objectives

CYP24A1 encodes a 24-hydroxylase involved in vitamin D catabolism, whose loss-of-function results in vitamin D-dependent hypercalcemia. Since the identification of CYP24A1 variants as a cause of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, a large body of literature has emerged indicating heterogeneity in penetrance, symptoms, biochemistry, and treatments. The objectives of the present research work were to investigate the clinical heterogeneity of the disease, the possibility of a relevant phenotype for monoallelic carriers, and to compare the hypocalcemic effect of the available therapies.

Methods

Two reviewers searched different databases for studies published between the identification of CYP24A1 variants and December 31, 2020. Eligible studies included clinical trials and reports describing carriers of CYP24A1 variants.

Results

Fifty eligible studies were identified, accounting for 221 patients. Genetic data were retrieved and allele frequencies were calculated. Acute hypercalcemia was the typical presentation during the first year of life (76%, P = 0.0005), and nephrocalcinosis was more frequent in infancy (P < 0.0001). Pregnancy was associated with symptomatic hypercalcemia in 81.8% and high rates of obstetric complications. Monoallelic carriers displayed significant rates of nephrolithiasis (19.4%), nephrocalcinosis (4.9%), and symptomatic hypercalcemia (5.6%).

Conclusions

CYP24A1 loss-of-function results in an age-dependent phenotype, which can be exacerbated by triggering factors, such as pregnancy. Although biallelic carriers present more significant clinical and biochemical features, monoallelic carriers have an increased risk of calcium-related conditions. The highly variable tested therapeutic approaches did not allow to draw conclusions on preferable therapeutic regime.

Open access

Roberta Armignacco, Anne Jouinot, Lucas Bouys, Amandine Septier, Thomas Lartigue, Mario Neou, Cassandra Gaspar, Karine Perlemoine, Leah Braun, Anna Riester, Fidéline Bonnet-Serrano, Anne Blanchard, Laurence Amar, Carla Scaroni, Filippo Ceccato, Gian Paolo Rossi, Tracy Ann Williams, Casper K Larsen, Stéphanie Allassonnière, Maria-Christina Zennaro, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke, Jérôme Bertherat, and Guillaume Assié

Objective

Cushing’s syndrome represents a state of excessive glucocorticoids related to glucocorticoid treatments or to endogenous hypercortisolism. Cushing’s syndrome is associated with high morbidity, with significant inter-individual variability. Likewise, adrenal insufficiency is a life-threatening condition of cortisol deprivation. Currently, hormone assays contribute to identify Cushing’s syndrome or adrenal insufficiency. However, no biomarker directly quantifies the biological glucocorticoid action. The aim of this study was to identify such markers.

Design

We evaluated whole blood DNA methylome in 94 samples obtained from patients with different glucocorticoid states (Cushing’s syndrome, eucortisolism, adrenal insufficiency). We used an independent cohort of 91 samples for validation.

Methods

Leukocyte DNA was obtained from whole blood samples. Methylome was determined using the Illumina methylation chip array (~850 000 CpG sites). Both unsupervised (principal component analysis) and supervised (Limma) methods were used to explore methylome profiles. A Lasso-penalized regression was used to select optimal discriminating features.

Results

Whole blood methylation profile was able to discriminate samples by their glucocorticoid status: glucocorticoid excess was associated with DNA hypomethylation, recovering within months after Cushing’s syndrome correction. In Cushing’s syndrome, an enrichment in hypomethylated CpG sites was observed in the region of FKBP5 gene locus. A methylation predictor of glucocorticoid excess was built on a training cohort and validated on two independent cohorts. Potential CpG sites associated with the risk for specific complications, such as glucocorticoid-related hypertension or osteoporosis, were identified, needing now to be confirmed on independent cohorts.

Conclusions

Whole blood DNA methylome is dynamically impacted by glucocorticoids. This biomarker could contribute to better assessment of glucocorticoid action beyond hormone assays.

Open access

Sara Santini, Nathalie Vionnet, Jérôme Pasquier, Michel Suter, Didier Hans, Elena Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Nelly Pitteloud, and Lucie Favre

Objective

Bariatric surgery (BS) induces loss of body fat mass (FM) with an inexorable loss of lean mass (LM). Menopause leads to deleterious changes in body composition (BC) related to estrogen deficiency including LM loss and increase in total and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). This study aims to describe the long-term weight evolution of post-menopausal women after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and to compare the BC between BS patients vs post-menopausal non-operated women.

Design

Cross-sectional study of 60 post-menopausal women who underwent RYGB ≥2 years prior to the study with nested case–control design.

Methods

Post-menopausal BS women were matched for age and BMI with controls. Both groups underwent DXA scan, lipids and glucose metabolism markers assessment.

Results

Median follow-up was 7.5 (2–18) years. Percentage of total weight loss (TWL%) was 28.5 ± 10%. After RYGB, LM percentage of body weight (LM%) was positively associated with TWL% and negatively associated with nadir weight. Forty-one post-BS women were age- and BMI-matched with controls. Post-BS patients showed higher LM% (57.7% (±8%) vs 52.5% (±5%), P  = 0.001), reduced FM% (39.4% (±8.4%) vs 45.9% (±5.4%), P  < 0.01) and lower VAT (750.6 g (±496) vs 1295.3 g (±688), P  < 0.01) with no difference in absolute LM compared to controls. While post-BS women showed a better lipid profile compared to controls, no difference was found in glucose markers.

Conclusions

Post-menopausal women after RYGB have a lower FM and VAT, preserved LM and a better lipid profile compared to controls. Weight loss after RYGB seems to have a persistent positive impact on metabolic health.

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Vin-Cent Wu, Shuo-Meng Wang, Kuo-How Huang, Yao Chou Tsai, Chieh-Kai Chan, Shao-Yu Yang, Lian-Yu Lin, Chin-Chen Chang, Ching-Chu Lu, Yen-Hung Lin, Yung-Ming Chen, and Jeff S Chueh

Objective

Long-term outcomes (especially mortality and/or major cardiovascular events (MACE)) of the unilateral primary aldosteronism (uPA) patients who underwent medical or surgery-targeted treatment, relative to those with essential hypertension (EH), have been scarcely reported.

Design and settings

Using the prospectively designed observational Taiwan Primary Aldosteronism Investigation cohort, we identified 858 uPA cases among 1220 primary aldosteronism patients and another 1210 EH controls.

Exposures

Operated uPA patients were grouped via their 1-year post-therapy statuses.

Results

Primary Aldosteronism Surgical Outcome clinical complete success (hypertension remission) was achieved in 272 (49.9%) of 545 surgically treated uPA patients. After follow-up for 6.3 ± 4.0 years, both hypertension-remissive (hazard ratio (HR): 0.54; P  < 0.001) and not-cured (HR: 0.61; P  < 0.001) uPA patients showed a lower risk of all-cause mortality than that of EH controls; whereas the not-cured group had a higher risk of incident MACE (sub-hazard ratio (sHR), 1.41; P = 0.037) but similar atrial fibrillation (Af) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA)-treated uPA patients had higher risks of MACE (sHR: 1.38; P = 0.033), Af (sHR:1.62, P = 0.049), and CHF (sHR: 1.44; P = 0.048) than those of EH controls, with mortality as a competing risk. Using inverse probability of treatment-weighted matching and counting adrenalectomy as a time-varying factor, treatment with adrenalectomy was associated with lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; P = 0.035), MACE (HR: 0.67; P = 0.037), and CHF (HR: 0.49; P = 0.005) compared to those of MRA therapy.

Conclusions

Adrenalectomy, independent of post-surgical hypertension remission, was associated with lower all-cause mortality of uPA patients, compared to that of EH patients. We further documented a more beneficial effect of adrenalectomy over MRA treatment on long-term mortality, MACE, and CHF in uPA patients.

Open access

Zimin Song, Meng Gao, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Yuxia Wei, Ling Yang, Huaidong Du, Yiping Chen, Jianqiang Zhang, Jvying Yao, Junshi Chen, Zhengming Chen, Tao Huang, Liming Li, and the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) Collaborative Group

Objectives

To prospectively assess the association of metabolic health status and its transition with incident diabetes risk across BMI categories.

Design

Cohort study based on the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB).

Methods

The CKB study enrolled 512 715 adults aged 30–79 years from ten diverse areas in China during 2004–2008. After exclusion, 432 763 participants were cross-classified by BMI categories and the metabolic status was followed up for incident diabetes disease. The changes in BMI and metabolic health status were defined from baseline to the second resurvey.

Results

Type 2 diabetes risk is higher for metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects than metabolically healthy normal weight (MHN) individuals (HR: 3.97, 95% CI: 3.64–3.66), and it is highest for those affected by metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) (HR: 6.47, 95% CI: 6.17–6.79). About 15.26% of participants with MHN converted to metabolically healthy overweight or obesity (MHOO), whereas 48.40% of MHOO remained unconverted throughout the follow-up. In obese or overweight people, the conversion from metabolically healthy to unhealthy might increase the chances of developing diabetes as compared to those with a stable metabolic healthy state (HR: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.99–4.59), while those with persistent metabolic disorders are most likely to have diabetes (HR: 8.32, 95% CI: 7.08–9.78).

Conclusions

Metabolic healthy is a transient state, and individuals converted from metabolically healthy status to unhealthy phenotypes across all BMI categories might raise the risk of diabetes.

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Sailimai Man, Yongxiang Gao, Jun Lv, Mingkun Tong, Jianchun Yin, Bo Wang, Yi Ning, and Liming Li

Objective

The risk of gallstones among metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) individuals is largely unexplored. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between MHO and gallstones in a health check-up cohort of Chinese adults.

Design

A prospective cohort study.

Methods

Participants included 58 862 individuals from the MJ health check-up cohort aged ≥ 18 years without a history of gallstones at baseline. Gallstones were diagnosed using abdominal B-type ultrasound. Metabolically healthy was defined as not having any one of the components of metabolic syndrome. Obesity was identified by BMI and waist circumference (WC). Participants were cross-classified at baseline by metabolic health and obesity. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of gallstones across BMI or WC categories were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models.

Results

During a median follow-up of 3.0 years (interquartile range, 1.6–6.1), 1269 participants developed gallstones. Individuals with MHO (HR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.09 for BMI criteria; HR: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.37, 2.21 for WC criteria) had a significantly higher risk of gallstones than those with metabolically healthy normal weight. In metabolically healthy individuals, BMI and WC both displayed linear dose–response relationships with gallstones (P for non-linearity >0.05). The association between MHO and gallstones remained unchanged when using different criteria for metabolic health and obesity.

Conclusions

MHO was significantly associated with gallstones, suggesting that obesity can independently contribute to gallstones development, even among metabolically healthy individuals. These findings emphasize that metabolically healthy individuals may still benefit from maintaining normal body weight to prevent gallstones.

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Ranyao Yang, Yue Hu, Chi Ho Lee, Yan Liu, Candela Diaz-Canestro, Carol Ho Yi Fong, Huige Lin, Kenneth K Y Cheng, Aparna Padmanabhan Pravelil, Erfei Song, Karen S L Lam, and Aimin Xu

Objective

Peptidase M20 domain containing 1 (PM20D1), a secreted enzyme catalysing condensation of fatty acids and amino acids into the bioactive lipids N-acyl amino acids (NAAA), induces uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-independent adaptive thermogenesis in brown/beige adipocytes in mice. This study aimed to explore the associations of the circulating levels of PM20D1 and major NAAA with obesity-related metabolic complications in humans.

Design and methods

Serum concentrations of PM20D1 and NAAA (C18:1-Leu and C18:1-Phe) in 256 Chinese subjects, including 78 lean and 178 overweight/obese individuals with or without diabetes, were measured with immunoassays and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, respectively. The impact of sulfonylurea and rosiglitazone on their circulating levels was examined in 62 patients with type 2 diabetes.

Results

Serum PM20D1 level was significantly elevated in overweight/obese individuals and was closely associated with circulating levels of C18:1-Leu and C18:1-Phe. Furthermore, serum PM20D1, C18:1-Leu and C18:1-Phe concentrations correlated positively with several parameters of adiposity as well as fasting and 2 h postprandial glucose, HbA1c, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR independent of BMI and age. Moreover, a significant elevation in PM20D1, C18:1-Leu and C18:1-Phe concentrations corresponding with increases in the number of components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) was observed. Treatment with sulfonylurea significantly decreased circulating PM20D1, C18:1-Leu and C18:1-Phe in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Conclusions

Increased serum levels of PM20D1 and its catalytic products NAAA are closely associated with obesity-related glucose dysregulation, insulin resistance and MetS and can be potentially used as clinical biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring these disorders.