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Julie Refardt, Tessa Brabander, Noémie S. Minczeles, Richard A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder, and Johannes Hofland

Objective: Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are common electrolyte abnormalities in patients with malignancy and have been independently associated with worse survival outcomes. To date, there are no data on the impact of dysnatremia on survival outcome in patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs).

Design: Retrospective cohort analysis from a tertiary care center of NEN patients treated with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with a cumulative activity of at least 3.7 GBq 177Lu-DOTATATE between the years 2000 to 2015

Methods: Comparison of overall survival of patients with the occurrence of hyponatremia (serum sodium <135mmol/L) or hypernatremia (serum sodium >145mmol/L) before start or during PRRT.

Results: A total of 649 patients were included. Hyponatremia occurred in 57 patients during the observation period and was associated with a shorter median overall survival (95% CI) of 25 months (14-36) compared to 55 months (48-61) of the 512 normonatremic patients (p<0.001), adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.48 (95% CI: 1.04-2.12). Overall survival time was reduced regardless of whether hyponatremia was present at baseline or during PRRT.

In contrast, hypernatremia occurred in 80 patients and was associated with a longer median overall survival (95% CI) of 94 months (47-140) compared with the 512 normonatremic patients (p=0.018), adjusted HR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.40-0.92). This association was driven by the patients with hypernatremia during PRRT. No association between dysnatremia and progression-free survival after PRRT was observed.

Conclusions: The occurrence of hypo- or hypernatremia in PRRT-treated NET patients is associated with opposing outcomes with regard to overall survival. Sodium levels might have a prognostic role in these patients.

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Mijin Kim, Hyereen Kim, Sojeong Park, Jaeeun Joo, In Ju Kim, and Bo Hyun Kim

Objective

Thyroid cancer survivors have a high risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs). We aimed to evaluate the site-specific incidence, prognosis, and risk factors for metachronous SPMs following thyroid cancer.

Design

A nationwide cohort study.

Methods

This study included data from the Korea National Health Insurance Service (between 2002 and 2018). Exposure to diagnostic radiation was defined by the number of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT scans after the index date. A cumulative radioactive iodine (RAI) dose >100 mCi was considered high-dose RAI.

Results

During the median 6 years of follow-up, among 291 640 patients, 13 083 (4.5%) developed SPMs. Thyroid cancer survivors had a 26% increased risk of SPMs compared with the general population (standardized incidence ratio: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.22–1.29). Furthermore, those with SPMs had a significantly poorer survival rate than those without SPMs (hazard ratio: 11.85; 95% CI: 11.21–12.54; P  < 0.001). Significantly elevated risks were observed in myeloid leukemia and 13 solid cancer sites: lip, salivary gland, small intestine, larynx, lung, mediastinum and pleura, mesothelium, breast, corpus uteri, ovary, prostate, kidney, and bladder. Frequent diagnostic medical radiation exposure and high-dose RAI therapy were independent risk factors for several SPMs, including the cancer of salivary gland, lung, mediastinum and pleura, breast, kidney, and bladder, as well as myeloid leukemia.

Conclusions

Frequent diagnostic radiation exposure and high-dose RAI therapy are independent risk factors for SPM following thyroid cancer. Clinicians need to consider minimizing unnecessary diagnostic radiation exposure and administering a high dose RAI only when justified in patients with thyroid cancer.

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Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Natalia Matulewicz, Marek Straczkowski, and Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska

Objective: Skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin action. There are limited data on the relationship between insulin action and skeletal muscle myogenic/regenerative potential. RUNX1 is a transcription factor which plays a role in muscle development and regeneration. The aim of our study was to assess the role of skeletal muscle myogenic/regenerative potential in the development of insulin resistance through the studies on RUNX1 transcription factor.

Design: Cross-sectional study. Experimental part with myoblast cell line culture.

Methods: We examined 41 young healthy volunteers, 21 normal-weight and 20 with overweight or obesity. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and vastus lateralis muscle biopsy were performed. In L6 myoblast and human skeletal muscle myoblasts (hSkMM) cell cultures, Runx1 was silenced at 2 stages of development. Cell growth, the expression of markers of myogenesis, nuclei fusion index, Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake were measured.

Results: Skeletal muscle RUNX1 expression was decreased in overweight/obese individuals in comparison with normal-weight individuals and was positively related to insulin sensitivity, independently of BMI. Runx1 loss-of-function at the stage of myoblast inhibited myoblast proliferation and differentiation, reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast, Runx1 knockdown in myotubes did not affect Akt phosphorylation, glucose uptake and other parameters studied.

Conclusions: Myogenic/regenerative potential of adult skeletal muscle may be an important determinant of insulin action. Our data suggest that muscle RUNX1 may play a role in the modulation of insulin action through its effect on myogenesis. 

Open access

Elin Pettersen Sørgjerd, Robin Mjelle, Vidar Beisvåg, Arnar Flatberg, Valdemar Grill, and Bjorn O Asvold

Objective

Diabetes is a heterogeneous disease and precise diagnosis of diabetes subgroups is necessary to initiate proper early treatment and clinical management of the disease. Circulating small RNAs (sRNAs) are potentially diagnostic biomarkers in diseases, including diabetes. Here we aimed to examine whether profiles of circulating sRNAs differed between patients with autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes and non-diabetic controls.

Design

This cross-sectional case-control study included participants from the third survey of the HUNT study.

Methods

We performed sRNA sequencing in serum from adult-onset type 1 diabetes (n=51), type 2 diabetes (n=50) and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adult (LADA, n=51), as well as non-diabetic HUNT3 participants as control group (n=51). Differential expression analysis of the sRNAs were performed in R using limma-voom.

Results

We identified differences in sRNA expression between autoimmune (type 1 diabetes and LADA) and non-autoimmune diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls. Focusing on microRNAs (miRNAs), we identified 10 differentially expressed mature miRNAs and 30 differentially expressed miRNA variants (isomiRs). We also identified significant changes within other sRNA classes, including a pronounced up-regulation of a transfer RNA-fragment in patients with diabetes compared to non-diabetic controls. We created cross-validated sRNA signatures based on the significant sRNAs that distinguished patients with diabetes from non-diabetic controls, and autoimmune from non-autoimmune diabetes, with high specificity and sensitivity. sRNA profiles did not distinguish between type 1 diabetes and LADA.

Conclusions

Circulating sRNAs are differentially expressed between patients with diabetes and non-diabetic controls and between autoimmune and non-autoimmune diabetes.

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Jose Italo Soares Mota, Rui Milton Patricio Silva-Júnior, Clarissa Silva Martins, Ana Carolina Bueno, Luiz Eduardo Wildemberg, Ximene Lima da Silva Antunes, Jorge Guilherme Okanobo Ozaki, Fernanda Borchers Coeli-Lacchini, Carlos Garcia-Peral, Antonio Edson Rocha Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Santos, Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Helio Rubens Machado, Marcelo Volpon dos Santos, Leandro M Colli, Monica R Gadelha, Sonir Roberto R. Antonini, and Margaret de Castro

Objectives: To evaluate how telomeres length behaves in adamantinomtous craniopharyngioma (aCP) and if it contributes to the pathogenesis of aCPs with and without CTNNB1 mutations.

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling 42 aCP patients from two tertiary institutions.

Methods: Clinicopathological features were retrieved from patient's charts. Fresh frozen tumors were used for RNA and DNA analyses. Telomere length was evaluated by qPCR (T/S ratio). Somatic mutations in TERT promoter (TERTp) and CTNNB1 were detected by Sanger and/or whole-exome sequencing. We performed RNA-Seq to identify differentially expressed genes in aCPs presenting with shorter or longer telomere lengths.

Results: Mutations in CTNNB1 were detected in 29 (69%) tumors. There was higher frequency of CTNNB1 mutations in aCPs from patients diagnosed under the age of 15 years (85% vs 15%; p=0.04) and a trend to recurrent disease (76% vs 24%; p=0.1). No mutation was detected in the TERTp region. The telomeres were shorter in CTNNB1-mutated aCPs (0.441, IQR:0.297-0.597 vs 0.607, IQR:0.445-0.778; p=0.04) but it was neither associated with clinicopathological features nor with recurrence. RNAseq identified a total of 387 differentially expressed genes, generating two clusters, being one enriched for short telomere and CTNNB1-mutated aCPs. Conclusions: CTNNB1 mutations are more frequent in children and adolescents and appear to associate with progressive disease. CTNNB1-mutated aCPs have shorter telomeres, demonstrating a relationship between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and telomere biology in the pathogenesis of aCPs.

Open access

Uta Neumann, Annelieke van der Linde, Ruth E Krone, Nils P Krone, Ayla Güven, Tülay Güran, Heba Elsedfy, Sukran Poyrazoglu, Feyza Darendeliler, Tania A S S Bachega, Antonio Balsamo, Sabine E Hannema, Niels Birkebaek, Ana Vieites, Ajay Thankamony, Martine Cools, Tatjana Milenkovic, Walter Bonfig, Eduardo Correa Costa, Navoda Atapattu, Liat de Vries, Guilherme Guaragna-Filho, Marta Korbonits, Klaus Mohnike, Jillian Bryce, S Faisal Ahmed, Bernard Voet, Oliver Blankenstein, and Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten

Objectives

International guidelines recommend additional salt supplementation during infancy in classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The influence of corticoid medication and growth has not been assessed.

Aim

To investigate the current use of salt supplementation, fludrocortisone (FC) and hydrocortisone (HC) dosage as well as weight, height, BMI and blood pressure (BP) in CAH children aged 0–3 years.

Methods

Retrospective multicentre analysis using data from the I-CAH registry. Salt-treated (ST) and non-salt-treated (NST) children were compared regarding FC and HC dosage, weight, height and BP at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months.

Results

We analysed 2483 visits of 331 patients born after year 2000 in 13 countries (male, n  = 145) with 203 ST patients (61%). NST children had significantly higher FC dosages at 1.5–4.5 months and higher HC dosages until 1.5 months of age. No differences in weight, length and BP between subgroups were observed. Children of the whole cohort showed increased BMI-SDS during the study period and about half of the reported BP readings were >P95.

Conclusion

In children treated with additional salt supplementation, FC and HC dosages are lower during the first months of life but without differences in weight, length and BP until 3 years of age compared to NST children. All children showed an increase in BMI-SDS and a high rate of BP readings >P95 until 3 years, indicating the start of weight gain and negative effects on blood pressure already in very early life.

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Ana Carolina Bueno, Mônica F Stecchini, Junier Marrero-Gutiérrez, Candy Bellido More, Leticia Ferro Leal, Débora Cristiane Gomes, Daniel Ferreira de Lima Neto, Silvia Regina Brandalise, Izilda Aparecida Cardinalli, José Andres Yunes, Thais Junqueira, Carlos Alberto Scrideli, Carlos Augusto Fernandes Molina, Fernando Silva Ramalho, Silvio Tucci, Fernanda Borchers Coeli-Lacchini, Ayrton Custodio Moreira, Leandra Ramalho, Ricardo Zorzetto Nicoliello Vêncio, Margaret De Castro, and Sonir Roberto R Antonini

Objective

Pediatric adrenocortical tumors (pACT) display complex genomic backgrounds, lacking robust prognostic markers and targeted therapeutic options. Vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) promoter hypermethylation and underexpression were reported in adrenocortical carcinomas from adult patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate VDR expression levels and methylation status in pACT and their clinical and prognostic significance.

Design

Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling pediatric patients with ACT from two tertiary referral institutions.

Methods

We evaluated clinicopathological features, VDR mRNA (qPCR) and protein (immunohistochemistry) expression, and VDR-wide methylation of ACT samples from 108 pediatric patients. Fourteen pediatric and 32 fetal and postnatal normal adrenals were used as controls.

Results

Unlike in pre- and post-natal normal adrenals, most pACT lacked nuclear VDR expression and had reduced mRNA levels, especially the carcinomas. Unsupervised analysis of VDR methylation data revealed two groups of pACT with distinct disease features and outcomes. Tumors with high VDR methylation presented lower mRNA levels, and the respective patients presented advanced disease and reduced disease-free and overall survival.

Conclusions

VDR has a role in normal adrenocortical development and homeostasis, which is impaired during tumorigenesis. VDR hypermethylation and underexpression may be both predictive and prognostic biomarkers for pACT.

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Sinéad M McGlacken-Byrne, Jasmina Kallefullah Mohammad, Niamh Conlon, Diliara Gubaeva, Julie Siersbæk, Anders Jørgen Schou, Huseyin Demirbilek, Antonia Dastamani, Jayne A L Houghton, Klaus Brusgaard, Maria Melikyan, Henrik Christesen, Sarah E Flanagan, Nuala P Murphy, and Pratik Shah

Objective

The phenotype mediated by HNF4A/HNF1A mutations is variable and includes diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY).

Design

We characterised an international multicentre paediatric cohort of patients with HNF4Aor HNF1Amutations presenting with HH over a 25-year period (1995–2020).

Methods

Clinical and genetic analysis data from five centres were obtained. Diazoxide responsiveness was defined as the ability to maintain normoglycaemia without intravenous glucose. Macrosomia was defined as a birth weight ≥90th centile. SPSS v.27.1 was used for data analysis.

Results

A total of 34 patients (70.6% female, n  = 24) with a mean age of 7.1 years (s.d. 6.4) were included. A total of 21 different heterozygous HNF4Amutations were identified in 29 patients (four novels). Four different previously described heterozygous HNF1A mutations were detected in five patients. Most (97.1%, n  = 33) developed hypoglycaemia by day 2 of life. The mean birth weight was 3.8 kg (s.d. 0.8), with most infants macrosomic (n = 21, 61.8%). Diazoxide was commenced in 28 patients (82.3%); all responded. HH resolved in 20 patients (58.8%) following a median of 0.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 0.2–6.8). Nine patients (n = 9, 26.5%) had developmental delay. Two patients developed Fanconi syndrome (p.Arg63Trp, HNF4A) and four had other renal or hepatic findings. Five (14.7%) developed MODY at a median of 11.0 years (IQR: 9.0–13.9). Of patients with inherited mutations (n = 25, 73.5%), a family history of diabetes was present in 22 (88.0%).

Conclusions

We build on the knowledge of the natural history and pancreatic and extra-pancreatic phenotypes of HNF4A/HNF1Amutations and illustrate the heterogeneity of this condition.

Free access

Nayana Tara Vasireddy, Krishna Shantilal Mori, Adlyne Reena Asirvatham, and Shriraam Mahadevan

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Han-Chow E Koh, Stephan van Vliet, Chao Cao, Bruce W Patterson, Dominic N Reeds, Richard Laforest, Robert J Gropler, Yo-El S Ju, and Bettina Mittendorfer

Background

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in people with obesity and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). The effect of OSA on metabolic function and the precise mechanisms (insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, or both) responsible for the increased T2D risk in people with OSA are unknown.

Design and methods

We used a two-stage hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp procedure in conjunction with stable isotopically labeled glucose and palmitate tracer infusions and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose injection and positron emission tomography to quantify multi-organ insulin action and oral and intravenous tolerance tests to evaluate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in fifteen people with obesity and OSA and thirteen people with obesity without OSA.

Results

OSA was associated with marked insulin resistance of adipose tissue triglyceride lipolysis and glucose uptake into both skeletal muscles and adipose tissue, whereas there was no significant difference between the OSA and control groups in insulin action on endogenous glucose production, basal insulin secretion, and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during both intravenous and oral glucose tolerance tests.

Conclusions

These data demonstrate that OSA is a key determinant of insulin sensitivity in people with obesity and underscore the importance of taking OSA status into account when evaluating metabolic function in people with obesity. These findings may also have important clinical implications because disease progression and the risk of diabetes-related complications vary by T2D subtype (i.e. severe insulin resistance vs insulin deficiency). People with OSA may benefit most from the targeted treatment of peripheral insulin resistance and early screening for complications associated with peripheral insulin resistance.