Circulating fatty acids and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective analyses in China

in European Journal of Endocrinology
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  • 1 X Pan, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 2 Y Huang, School of Environment and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
  • 3 X Li, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 4 Y Wang, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 5 Y Ye, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 6 H Chen, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guang'anmen Hospital, Beijing, China
  • 7 M Marklund, The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
  • 8 Y Wen, Department of Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China
  • 9 Y Liu, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shuangliu Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Chengdu, China
  • 10 H Zeng, Nutrition Department, Shuangliu Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Chengdu, China
  • 11 X Qi, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, West China Second Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
  • 12 X Yang, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
  • 13 C Yang, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
  • 14 G Liu, Women and Kids Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia
  • 15 R Gibson, Women and Kids Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia
  • 16 S Xu, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 17 D Yu, Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, United States
  • 18 D Chen, School of Environment and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China
  • 19 Y Li, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 20 Z Mei, Obstetrics Department, The Third Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China
  • 21 A Pan, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 22 J Wu, The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Correspondence: An Pan, Email: panan@hust.edu.cn

Objective

We aimed to examine prospective associations between circulating fatty acids in early pregnancy and incident gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Chinese pregnant women.

Methods

Analyses were based on two prospective nested case-control studies conducted in western China (336 GDM cases and 672 matched controls) and central China (305 cases and 305 matched controls). Fasting plasma fatty acids in early pregnancy (gestational age at enrollment: 10.4 weeks [standard deviation, 2.0]) and 13.2 weeks [1.0], respectively) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and GDM was diagnosed based on the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria during 24-28 weeks of gestation. Multiple metabolic biomarkers (HOMA-IR [homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance], HbA1c, c-peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin, leptin, and blood lipids) were additionally measured among 672 non-GDM controls at enrollment.

Results

Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) 14:0 (pooled odds ratio, 1.41 for each 1-standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval, 1.25, 1.59) and 16:0 (1.19; 1.05, 1.35) were associated with higher odds of GDM. Higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) 18:2n-6 was strongly associated with lower odds of GDM (0.69; 0.60, 0.80). In non-GDM pregnant women, higher SFAs 14:0 and 16:0 but lower n-6 PUFA 18:2n-6 were generally correlated with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

Conclusions

We documented adverse associations of 14:0 and 16:0 but a protective association of 18:2n-6 with GDM among Chinese pregnant women. Our findings highlight the distinct roles of specific fatty acids in the onset of GDM.

 

     European Society of Endocrinology

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