Missing data: the impact of what isn’t there

in European Journal of Endocrinology

Correspondence: Rolf Groenwold, Email: R.H.H.Groenwold@lumc.nl
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The validity of clinical research is potentially threatened by missing data. Any variable measured in a study can have missing values, including the exposure, the outcome, and confounders. When missing values are ignored in the analysis, only those subjects with complete records will be included in the analysis. This may lead to biased results and loss of power. We explain why missing data may lead to bias and discuss a commonly used classification of missing data.


     European Society of Endocrinology

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