Does exercise beneficially affect sex hormones when added to hypo-caloric diets in adults with overweight or obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials

in European Journal of Endocrinology
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  • 1 Nutrition and Food Security Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
  • | 2 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
  • | 3 Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam, Iran
  • | 4 Yazd Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
  • | 5 School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Pure & Applied Science, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • | 6 Department of Physical Education Studies, Faculty of Education, Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba, Canada
  • | 7 Centre for Health and Exercise Science Research, Department of Sport, Physical Education and Health, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong

Correspondence should be addressed to A Salehi-Abargouei; Email: abargouei@ssu.ac.ir or abargouei@gmail.com
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Objective

There is no consensus of opinion if exercise beneficially affects sex hormones if added to weight-loss diets. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials to evaluate the effect of adding exercise to a hypo-caloric diet during a weight-loss program, on serum testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in adults with overweight/obesity.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.

Methods

Online databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched up to April 2021. A random-effects model was applied to compare mean changes in sex hormones and SHBG between participants undergoing a hypo-caloric diet with or without exercise.

Results

In total, 9 eligible clinical trials with 462 participants were included. Out of these, seven, three, and four studies illustrated changes in testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG, respectively. The meta-analysis revealed that exercise had no significant effect on circulating testosterone (WMD = −0.03 nmol/L, 95% CI: −0.11, 0.06, P = 0.51), estradiol (WMD = −0.46 pg/mL, 95% CI: −1.57, 0.65, P = 0.42), and SHBG (WMD = 0.54 nmol/L, 95% CI: −2.63, 3.71, P = 0.74) when added to low-calorie diets.

Conclusion

The addition of exercise to a hypo-caloric diet provided no additional improvement in sex hormone profiles. Further, well-designed randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up periods in both sexes are recommended to confirm and expand the current results.

 

     European Society of Endocrinology

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