1 Unidade de Endocrinologia do Desenvolvimento, Laboratório de Hormônios e Genética Molecular/LIM42, Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil
2 Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
3 Unidade de Endocrinologia Genetica/LIM25, Disciplina de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil
4 Departamento de Pediatria, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil
5 Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
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Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare condition caused by GnRH deficiency. Several genes have been associated with the pathogenesis of CHH, but most cases still remain without a molecular diagnosis. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the simultaneous genotyping of several regions, faster, making possible the extension of the genetic knowledge of CHH.
Genetic characterization of a large cohort of Brazilian CHH patients.
Design and patients
A cohort of 130 unrelated patients (91 males, 39 females) with CHH (75 normosmic CHH, 55 Kallmann syndrome) was studied using a panel containing 36 CHH-associated genes.
Potential pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants were identified in 43 (33%) CHH patients. The genes ANOS1, FGFR1 and GNRHR were the most frequently affected. A novel homozygous splice site mutation was identified in the GNRH1 gene and a deletion of the entire coding sequence was identified in SOX10. Deleterious variants in the IGSF10 gene were identified in two patients with reversible normosmic CHH. Notably, 6.9% of the patients had rare variants in more than one gene. Rare variants were also identified in SPRY4, IL17RD, FGF17, IGSF1 and FLRT3 genes.
This is a large study of the molecular genetics of CHH providing new genetic findings for this complex and heterogeneous genetic condition. NGS has been shown to be a fast, reliable and effective tool in the molecular diagnosis of congenital CHH and being able to targeting clinical genetic testing in the future.
Supplemental table 1: Prevalence of genetic defects in CHH patients previously studied by Sanger sequencing in our cohort.
Supplemental table 2. Clinical and genetic features of 130 patients evaluated by gene panel.