Non-invasive DXA-derived bone structure assessment of acromegaly patients: a cross-sectional study

in European Journal of Endocrinology
Correspondence should be addressed to M Kužma; Email: kuzma@ru.unb.sk
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Introduction

Impaired bone microarchitecture is involved in vertebral fracture (VF) development among acromegaly patients.

Aim of the study

Comparison of DXA-derived bone parameters, areal BMD (aBMD), trabecular bone score (TBS) and 3D-SHAPER parameters in acromegaly patients with healthy controls.

Methods

This cross-sectional study evaluated acromegaly patients and a control group of healthy subjects. In all subjects, a single measurement of pituitary axis hormone levels, bone turnover markers, aBMD, (total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS)), TBS and 3D-SHAPER of the proximal femur region was performed. All subjects underwent DXA assessment of VF using the semiquantitative approach.

Results

One hundred six patients with acromegaly (mean age 56.6 years, BMI 30.2 kg/m2) and 104 control subjects (mean age 54.06 years, 28.4 BMI kg/m2) were included. After adjustment for weight, LS aBMD, TBS and TH trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) remained lower (P = 0.0048, <0.0001 and <0.0001, respectively) while cortical thickness (Cth) at TH and neck remained thicker (P = 0.006) in acromegaly patients compared with controls. The best multivariate model (model 1) discriminating patients with and without acromegaly included TBS, TH trabecular vBMD and TH Cth parameters (all P < 0.05). Twenty-two VFs (13 acromegaly subjects) were recognized. In these subjects after adjustment for age, FN aBMD, TH cortical sBMD and TH cortical vBMD remained significantly associated with the prevalent VF (OR = 2.69 (1.07–6.78), 2.84 (1.24–6.51) and 2.38 (1.11–5.10) for neck aBMD, TH cortical sBMD and TH cortical vBMD respectively)). The AUCs were similar for each parameter in this model.

Conclusions

Acromegaly patients, regardless of VF presence, have lower trabecular bone quantitative parameters, but those with VFs had decreased cortical density.

 

     European Society of Endocrinology

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Figures

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    3D SHAPER workflow. From left to right: a femur DXA acquisition, the registration process and the results (QCT-like) of the DXA-based 3D modeling process. Basically, a population-based QCT model of the proximal femur is registered onto the DXA scan of the patient. At each step of the registration process, the 2D projection of this population-based QCT model is compared with the DXA acquisition. As soon as the perfect match is obtained between projection and the DXA acquisition, the 3D patient-specific QCT-like model of the bone site is obtained. A full colour version of this figure is available at https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-18-0881.

  • View in gallery

    After adjustment for weight, (A) aBMD LS (P = 0.0048), (B) TBS (P < 0.0001) and (C) trabecular vBMD TH (P < 0.0001) remained lower in acromegaly patients compared with controls while Cth (at (D) TH and neck) remained thicker (P = 0.006). A full colour version of this figure is available at https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-18-0881.

  • View in gallery

    AUC of model 1 (TBS, TH trabecular vBMD and TH Cth) is better than those of TBS, TH trabecular vBMD and TH CTh alone.

  • View in gallery

    Differences between acromegaly subjects with vs without vertebral fracture. After adjustment for age, (A) neck aBMD, (B) TH cortical sBMD and (C) TH cortical vBMD remained significantly associated with the prevalent VF. The AUC analysis showed slight superiority of TH cortical sBMD (D). A full colour version of this figure is available at https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-18-0881.

  • View in gallery

    Average differences in both types of vBMD (trabecular and cortical) between acromegaly subjects with and without VF. Differences are shown in the mid-coronal plane. Red-yellow (respectively blue-green) colors indicate regions where vBMD is on average lower (respectively higher) for acromegaly subjects compared to controls.

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