Opiates and the adrenal: the tip of the iceberg?

in European Journal of Endocrinology
Correspondence should be addressed to A Grossman; Email: ashley.grossman@ocdem.ox.ac.uk
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Morphine-like compounds based on opium and derived from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, have been known for millennia, and their use recurs throughout the ages in personal reports and in world literature. For many decades their use was, if not fully condoned by society, tolerated as an effective means of ameliorating pain and indeed for ‘recreational’ purposes. The Opium Wars in the nineteenth century pitched the enthusiastic British traders in China against the local authorities who wished to control their use, with the eventual triumph of commercial capitalism and British firepower. In late nineteenth century London such opium


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