Novel insertion frameshift mutation of the LH receptor gene: problematic clinical distinction of Leydig cell hypoplasia from enzyme defects primarily affecting testosterone biosynthesis

in European Journal of Endocrinology

Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that interferes with normal development of male external genitalia in 46,XY individuals and is caused by inactivating mutations of the LH receptor gene. The clinical and biochemical diagnostic parameters of LCH are not always specific and may therefore show significant overlap with other causes of insufficient testicular steroid biosynthesis. We have studied a 46,XY newborn with completely female external genitalia and palpable testes. Due to an increased basal serum ratio of androstenedione/testosterone, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD 3) deficiency was initially suspected. DNA analysis of the corresponding HSD17B3 gene, however, showed no abnormalities in the entire coding region. In contrast, direct sequencing of the LH receptor gene revealed a novel homozygous single nucleotide insertion in exon 11 (codon A589fs) producing a frame shift in the open reading frame predicting for premature termination of translation 17 amino acids downstream. From the genetic perspective, this mutation represents the first frame shift mutation in the LH receptor gene ever reported to date. From the clinical standpoint, LCH should always be considered in the differential diagnosis as steroid profiles may not be informative. Therefore, molecular genetic analysis should be warranted for androgen biosynthesis defects in all cases.

Abstract

Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that interferes with normal development of male external genitalia in 46,XY individuals and is caused by inactivating mutations of the LH receptor gene. The clinical and biochemical diagnostic parameters of LCH are not always specific and may therefore show significant overlap with other causes of insufficient testicular steroid biosynthesis. We have studied a 46,XY newborn with completely female external genitalia and palpable testes. Due to an increased basal serum ratio of androstenedione/testosterone, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD 3) deficiency was initially suspected. DNA analysis of the corresponding HSD17B3 gene, however, showed no abnormalities in the entire coding region. In contrast, direct sequencing of the LH receptor gene revealed a novel homozygous single nucleotide insertion in exon 11 (codon A589fs) producing a frame shift in the open reading frame predicting for premature termination of translation 17 amino acids downstream. From the genetic perspective, this mutation represents the first frame shift mutation in the LH receptor gene ever reported to date. From the clinical standpoint, LCH should always be considered in the differential diagnosis as steroid profiles may not be informative. Therefore, molecular genetic analysis should be warranted for androgen biosynthesis defects in all cases.

Introduction

Failure of the human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor of Leydig cells to respond to LH and the placental LH homologue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) leads to a decrease or absent testosterone secretion from the testes and results in a variable clinical presentation of Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH). The spectrum ranges from 46,XY women with a normal-appearing female phenotype (1, 2) to patients with hypoplastic male external genitalia or hypospadias (3, 4).

Clinical diagnosis of these patients is often difficult due to a similar phenotype found in patients with enzyme defects primarily affecting testicular testosterone biosynthesis. This includes the differential diagnosis of isolated 17,20 lyase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD 3) deficiency.

The inactivation of the LH receptor can be caused by different mutations. Nonsense mutations resulting in truncation of the protein (57), deletions (8, 9) and even missense mutations (1, 2, 4, 10, 11) resulting in an amino acid change are ways in which the receptor protein can be non-functional. Additionally, an insertion in exon 1 has been described which causes profound impairment of signal transduction mediated by the mutated LH receptor (12). Although deletions or insertions of single nucleotides resulting in reading frame shift and translational stop are known in other genes (13, 14), these mutations have not been reported for the LH receptor gene so far. We have studied a 46,XY phenotypical girl who was suspected to have a 17β-HSD3 deficiency from the serum steroid profile, but turned out to have the first reported frame shift mutation of the LH receptor gene.

Patient and methods

Patient

The unambiguously phenotypically girl was born as the first child from healthy, consanguineous parents from Turkey. At birth, she presented with a ventricular septum defect and an ear appendage. Lumps were palpable in the labio maiora and lead to further diagnostic procedures. By ultrasound, testicular tissue was visualized (Fig. 1). Müllerian structures were not detected. The karyotype was 46,XY; serum testosterone levels were very low (< 0.01 nmol/l) and could not be stimulated by hCG treatment at the age of 5 weeks. When the child was 8 months old the hCG stimulation test was repeated with 5000 IU/m2 body surface and an adreno-corticotropin (ACTH) test was performed. The results are shown in Table 1. Urinary steroid profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) gave no evidence for 21-hydroxylase, 3β-HSD, 11β-hydroxylase and 17-hydroxylase/17-lyase deficiency. The androstenedione/testosterone ratio in serum, determined by stable isotope dilution GC-MS (15), was initially interpreted as pathological and an analysis of the HSD17B3 gene was performed. No mutation was found. Due to absent stimulation of testicular androgens after hCG, analysis of the LH receptor gene was initiated. Informed consent for this study was obtained from the patient’s parents.

DNA analysis

Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using QIAamp DNA mini kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Exon 1–10 and two overlapping fragments of exon 11 of the LH receptor gene as well as the adjacent exon-intron boundaries partly up to 70 intron nucleotides (intron 1) were amplified by PCR using primers and conditions previously described (16, 17). The PCR fragments were checked on agarose gels, purified with the High Pure PCR Purification Kit (Boehringer Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany) and sequenced using the Thermo Sequenase Dye Terminator Cycle sequencing kit for PCR fragments (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Amersham, Bucks, UK).

Results and discussion

Sequencing of the complete coding sequence of the LH receptor gene of our 46,XY girl revealed a homozygous single nucleotide insertion at position 1741. This frame shift mutation resulted in an altered amino acid sequence from codon 589 to 604 followed by a STOP (TCT AAA to CTC TAA) (Figs 2 and 3).

Androgenic steroids are essential for male sexual differentiation. Disorders of male development in 46,XY individuals who have no abnormalities in adrenal steroid biosynthesis, absent Müllerian ducts and normally structured testis in the inguinal regions can be due to a defective LH receptor, impaired testosterone biosynthesis or androgen insensitivity. Enzyme defects that are known to primarily affect testicular testosterone biosynthesis are isolated 17,20 lyase and 17β-HSD 3 deficiency (18, 19).

In prepubertal children, basal androgen levels are generally low, therefore stimulation of the Leydig cells has to be performed. However, a missing or reduced rise of testosterone after the hCG stimulation test may demonstrate a defective LH receptor or a defect in testosterone biosynthesis itself. A 17β-HSD 3 defect may be suspected if a disproportionate rise in plasma androstendione and estrone levels, compared with testosterone and estradiol concentrations, is found. A plasma testosterone to androstendione ratio of less than 1.0 is typically found in 17β-HSD 3 patients (20) whereas an abnormal increase in plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 17-hydroxypregnenolone and an increased ratio of 17-hydroxy C21-deoxysteroids to C19-steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendione) following hCG may account for deficiency of the 17,20-lyase activity of the P450c17 complex (21).

In our patient, GC-MS profiling of steroids in urine gave no evidence of a form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, in particular of 17,20 lyase deficiency. A 17-ketoreductase deficiency cannot be excluded by this analysis. While the ratio of testosterone/androstendione was less than 1.0 after hCG stimulation, neither steroids rose, and thus the diagnosis of 17β-HSD 3 deficiency could be excluded both by the laboratory data as well as the molecular genetic analysis of the HSD17B3 gene (22, 23). Remarkably, there was an increase of 17β-hydroxypregnolonone after ACTH and hCG in this patient (Table 1). A possible explanation for this finding may be an adrenal origin of the detected testosterone precursors whereas no gonadal androgens could be produced. Comparison of androgens levels (basal and in response to hCG) before and after gonadectomy may help to differentiate the origin of the androgen precursors in the patient.

The poor or totally lacking responsiveness to LH/hCG has led to the hypothesis that loss-of-function mutations in the LH receptor gene may be the underlying cause of LCH. Many different types of mutations may cause full inactivation of function of the LH receptor gene product. Three nonsense mutations have been found in different regions of the transmembrane domain: helix 4 (W491*) (5), helix 5 (C545*) (6) and intracellular loop 3 (R554*) (7). These mutations cause truncation of the LH receptor protein and corresponding absence of at least part of the intracellular loop 3 and transmembrane domains 6 and 7 that are important regions for G protein coupling. We identified in our patient a frameshift-inducing base insertion in the LH receptor gene, which causes a premature truncation of the LH receptor protein and loss of its function. The single nucleotide insertion is located in a highly conserved region in the 6th α helix. The result of the reading frame shift and the translational stop codon 605 may be caused by a duplication of one nucleotide t in a t-rich region (tct1t2t3t4t5t6t7 gcc to tct1t2t3t4t5t6t7t8gc) (Fig. 3). We did not test this mutation in vitro because the importance of the interaction of the 6th transmembrane domain in LH receptor-mediated G protein activation has been shown using site-directed mutagenesis of these regions (24). Additionally a truncation of the C-terminal tail of the rLH receptor at residue 628 enhances complete hCG-induced cAMP response (25).

Our patient may be compared with a ‘human knockout mouse’ or ‘knockout LH receptor human’. Zhang et al. (26) generated mice with LH receptor knockout by inactivating, through homologous recombination, exon 11 of the LH receptor gene. The knockout model produced total inactivation of LH receptor function. The male ‘knockout LH receptor mouse’ should represent the male ‘knockout LH receptor human’. In humans, a clear correlation exits between receptor activity and the resulting phenotype. Our patient underlines that a total inactivation of the LH receptor protein leads to external female genitalia without a significant sign of the impact of androgens (Fig. 1). However, male knockout LH receptor mice are born phenotypically normal. They can be distinguished from wild-type mice by external examination only after day 30–35 by their small penis, short anogenital distance and underdeveloped scrotum. Although the receptor inactivation in LH receptor knockout mice is total, the male phenotype is less dramatic than in connection with similar human mutations. This indicates that a gonadotropin-independent component of fetal Leydig cell androgen production is more prominent in the mouse than in the human. However, shared similarities like infertility, phenotype of internal genitalia and histology of the testis are predominant. The different phenotypes in the males could reflect developmental differences between mice and humans and emphasizes the need to be careful in transferring models to the human conditions.

In conclusion, the diagnosis of severe male under-virilization due to isolated 17,20 lyase or 17β-HSD 3 deficiency gene must be distinguished from a loss-of-function mutation of the LH receptor gene and it is difficult to detect solely by steroid analysis. This warrants detailed molecular genetic analysis of the underlying genes in order to make the correct diagnosis.

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by a grant (Lise-Meitner-Habilitationsstipendium) of the Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (to A R-U) and by a grant of the Network-Funding BMBF-Program for Disorders of somatosexual differentiation and intersexuality (to A R-U, O H and P M H) as well as the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (KFO 111/1-2 to O H).

Table 1

Results of the hCG stimulation test and the ACTH test at the age of 8 months are shown. All steroid serum levels were analyzed by GC-MS.

BasalAfter ACTH stimulation*After hCG stimulation**
*Maximum serum level after 250 μg ACTH; **maximum serum level after 5000 IU/m2 body surface; n.d., not detectable.
Testosteronen.d.n.d.n.d.
4-androstenedione0.18 ng/ml0.32 ng/ml0.16 ng/ml
Dehydroepiandrosterone1.22 ng/ml2.17 ng/ml1.40 ng/ml
Androstanediol0.06 ng/ml0.06 ng/ml0.19 ng/ml
5α-dihydrotestosteronen.d.n.d.n.d.
17α-hydroxyprogesterone0.22 ng/ml0.87 ng/ml0.27 ng/ml
17α-hydroxypregnenolone1.81 ng/ml13.08 ng/ml3.41 ng/ml
11-desoxycortisoln.d.2.06 ng/ml0.79 ng/ml
Cortisol10.33 μg/ml27.49 μg/ml16.33 μg/ml
Figure 1
Figure 1

External female genitalia of the 46,XY girl are shown suggesting that no androgen actions during male sex differentiation were present. Gonads are palpable in the inguinal regions.

Citation: European Journal of Endocrinology eur j endocrinol 152, 2; 10.1530/eje.1.01852

Figure 2
Figure 2

Sequences of wild-type (human LH receptor (LHR)) and patient encoding amino acid residues 584–606 are presented. The altered sequence of 17 amino acids is not underlined. Insertion of a single thymine residue at position 1765 and the stop codon (taa) are indicated.

Citation: European Journal of Endocrinology eur j endocrinol 152, 2; 10.1530/eje.1.01852

Figure 3
Figure 3

Sequences of a normal control (wild type), the patient and the father are shown. The nucleotide at position 1765 is indicated. Analysis of the patient’s DNA revealed a homozygous insertion of a single thymine residue. Father and mother (not shown) are both heterozygous for this mutation.

Citation: European Journal of Endocrinology eur j endocrinol 152, 2; 10.1530/eje.1.01852

References

  • 1

    KremerH Kraaij R Toledo SPA Post M Fridman JB Hayashida CY van Reen M Milgrom E Ropers HH Mariman E Themmen APN & Brunner HG. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to a homozygous missense mutations of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene. Nature Genetics19959160–164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    MartensJW Lumbroso S Verhoef-Post M Georget V Richter-Unruh A Szarras-Czapnik M Romer TE Brunner HG Themmen APN & Sultan CH. Mutant luteinizing hormone receptors in a compound heterozygous patient with complete Leydig cell hypoplasia: abnormal processing causes signaling deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2002872506–2513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    MartensJWM Verhoef-Post M Abelin N Ezabella M Toledo SPA Brunner HG & Themmen APN. A homozygous mutation in the luteinizing hormone receptor causes partial Leydig cell hypoplasia: correlation between receptor activity and phenotype. Molecular Endocrinology199812775–784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    MisrahiM Meduri G Pissard S Bouvattier C Beau I Loosfelt H Jolivet A Rappaport R Milgrom E & Bougneres P. Comparison of immunocytochemical and molecular features with the phenotype in a case of incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism associated with a mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism1997822159–2165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Richter-UnruhA Martens JW Verhoef-Post M Wessels HT Kors WA Sinnecker GH Boehmer A Drop SL Toledo SP Brunner HG & Themmen APN. Leydig cell hypoplasia: cases with new mutations new polymorphisms and cases without mutations in the luteinizing hormone receptor gene. Clinical Endocrinology200256103–112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    LaueLL Wu SM Kudo M Huesh AJW Curtler GB Jr Jelly DH Diamond FB & Chan WY. A nonsense mutation of the human luteinizing hormone receptor gene in Leydig cell hypoplasia. Human Molecular Genetics199541429–1433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    LatronicoAC Anasti J Arnhold IJ Rapaport R Mendonca BB Bloise W Castro M Tsigos C & Chrousos GP. Brief report: testicular and ovarian resistance to luteinizing hormone caused by inactivating mutations of the luteinizing hormone-receptor gene. New England Journal of Medicine1996334507–512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    LatronicoAC Cha Y Arnhold IJ Liu X Mendonca BB & Segaloff DL. A homozygous microdeletion in helix 7 of the luteinizing hormone receptor associated with familial testicular and ovarian resistance is due to both decreased cell expression and impaired effector activation by the cell surface receptor. Molecular Endocrinology199812442–450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    GromollJ Eiholzer U Nieschlag E & Simoni M. Male hypogonadism caused by homozygous deletion of exon 10 of the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor: differential action of human chorionic gonadotropin and LH. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2000852281–2286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    GromollJ Schulz A Borta H Gudermann T Teerds KJ Greschniok A Nieschlag E & Seif FJ. Homozygous mutation within the conserved Ala-Phe-Asn-Glu-Thr motif of exon 7 of the LH receptor causes male pseudohermaphroditism. European Journal of Endocrinology2002147597–608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    StavrouSS Zhu YS Cai LQ Katz MD Herrea C Defillo-Ricart M & Imperato-McGinley J. A novel mutation of the human luteinizing hormone receptor in 46 XY and 46 XX sisters. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism1998832091–2098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    WuSM Hallermeier KM Laue LL Brain C Berry AC Grant DB Griffin JE Wilson JD Curtler GB Jr & Chan WY. Inactivation of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor by an insertional mutation in Leydig cell hypoplasia. Molecular Endocrinology1998121651–1660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    BrooksBP Moroi SE Downs CA Wiltse S Othman MI Semina EV & Richards JE. A novel mutation in the PITX2 gene in a family with Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome. Ophthalmic Genetics20042557–62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    BillerbeckAE Mendonca BB Pinto EM Madureira G Arnhold IJ & Bachega TA. Three novel mutations in CYP21 gene in Brazilian patients with the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to a founder effect. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2002874314–4317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    WudySA Hartmann M Solleder C & Homoki J. Determination of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in human plasma by routine isotope dilution mass spectrometry using benchtop gas chromatography-mass selective detection. Steroids200166759–762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    HiguchiR Krummel B & Saiki RK. A general method of in vitro preparation and specific mutagenesis of DNA fragments: study of protein and DNA interactions. Nucleic Acids Research1988167351–7367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    HallCV Jacob PE Ringold GM & Lee F. Expression and regulation of Escherichia coli lacZ gene fusions in mammalian cells. Journal of Molecular and Applied Genetics19832101–109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    GellerDH Auchus RJ Mendonca BB & Miller WL. The genetic and functional basis of isolated 1720-lyase deficiency. Nature Genetics199717201–205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    GeisslerWM Davis DL Wu L Bradshaw KD Patel S Mendonca BB Elliston KO Wilson JD Russell DW & Andersson S. Male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations of testicular 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3. Nature Genetics1994734–39.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    TwestenW Holterhus P Sippell WG Morlot M Schumacher H Schenk B & Hiort O. Clinical endocrine and molecular genetic findings in patients with 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Hormone Research20005326–31.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    GrumbachMM Hughes IA & Conte F. Disorders of sex differentiation. In Williams Textbook of Endocrinology edn 9 ch. 22 pp 942–943. Eds PR Larsen HM Kronenberg S Melmed & KS Polonsky. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Company 2003.

  • 22

    WitJM van Hooff CO Thijssen JH & Van den Brande JL. In vivo and in vitro studies in a 46XY phenotypically female infant with 17-ketosteroid reductase deficiency. Hormone Metabolism Research198820367–374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    ForestMG. Pattern of the response of testosterone and its precursors to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in relation to age in infants and children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism197949132–137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    SchulzA Schoneberg T Paschke R Schultz G & Gudermann T. Role of the third intracellular loop for the activation of gonadotropin receptors. Molecular Endocrinology199913181–190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    WangZ Hipkin RW & Ascoli M. Progressive cytoplasmic tail truncations of the lutropin–choriogonadotropin receptor prevent agonist- or phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation impair agonist- or phorbol ester-induced desensitization and enhance agonist-induced receptor down-regulation. Molecular Endocrinology199610748–759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    ZhangFP Poutanen M Wilbertz J & Huhtaniemi I. Normal prenatal but arrested postnatal sexual development of luteinizing hormone receptor knockout (LhRKO) mice. Molecular Endocrinology200115172–183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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Figures

  • View in gallery

    External female genitalia of the 46,XY girl are shown suggesting that no androgen actions during male sex differentiation were present. Gonads are palpable in the inguinal regions.

  • View in gallery

    Sequences of wild-type (human LH receptor (LHR)) and patient encoding amino acid residues 584–606 are presented. The altered sequence of 17 amino acids is not underlined. Insertion of a single thymine residue at position 1765 and the stop codon (taa) are indicated.

  • View in gallery

    Sequences of a normal control (wild type), the patient and the father are shown. The nucleotide at position 1765 is indicated. Analysis of the patient’s DNA revealed a homozygous insertion of a single thymine residue. Father and mother (not shown) are both heterozygous for this mutation.

References

  • 1

    KremerH Kraaij R Toledo SPA Post M Fridman JB Hayashida CY van Reen M Milgrom E Ropers HH Mariman E Themmen APN & Brunner HG. Male pseudohermaphroditism due to a homozygous missense mutations of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene. Nature Genetics19959160–164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    MartensJW Lumbroso S Verhoef-Post M Georget V Richter-Unruh A Szarras-Czapnik M Romer TE Brunner HG Themmen APN & Sultan CH. Mutant luteinizing hormone receptors in a compound heterozygous patient with complete Leydig cell hypoplasia: abnormal processing causes signaling deficiency. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2002872506–2513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    MartensJWM Verhoef-Post M Abelin N Ezabella M Toledo SPA Brunner HG & Themmen APN. A homozygous mutation in the luteinizing hormone receptor causes partial Leydig cell hypoplasia: correlation between receptor activity and phenotype. Molecular Endocrinology199812775–784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    MisrahiM Meduri G Pissard S Bouvattier C Beau I Loosfelt H Jolivet A Rappaport R Milgrom E & Bougneres P. Comparison of immunocytochemical and molecular features with the phenotype in a case of incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism associated with a mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism1997822159–2165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Richter-UnruhA Martens JW Verhoef-Post M Wessels HT Kors WA Sinnecker GH Boehmer A Drop SL Toledo SP Brunner HG & Themmen APN. Leydig cell hypoplasia: cases with new mutations new polymorphisms and cases without mutations in the luteinizing hormone receptor gene. Clinical Endocrinology200256103–112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    LaueLL Wu SM Kudo M Huesh AJW Curtler GB Jr Jelly DH Diamond FB & Chan WY. A nonsense mutation of the human luteinizing hormone receptor gene in Leydig cell hypoplasia. Human Molecular Genetics199541429–1433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    LatronicoAC Anasti J Arnhold IJ Rapaport R Mendonca BB Bloise W Castro M Tsigos C & Chrousos GP. Brief report: testicular and ovarian resistance to luteinizing hormone caused by inactivating mutations of the luteinizing hormone-receptor gene. New England Journal of Medicine1996334507–512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    LatronicoAC Cha Y Arnhold IJ Liu X Mendonca BB & Segaloff DL. A homozygous microdeletion in helix 7 of the luteinizing hormone receptor associated with familial testicular and ovarian resistance is due to both decreased cell expression and impaired effector activation by the cell surface receptor. Molecular Endocrinology199812442–450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    GromollJ Eiholzer U Nieschlag E & Simoni M. Male hypogonadism caused by homozygous deletion of exon 10 of the luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor: differential action of human chorionic gonadotropin and LH. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2000852281–2286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    GromollJ Schulz A Borta H Gudermann T Teerds KJ Greschniok A Nieschlag E & Seif FJ. Homozygous mutation within the conserved Ala-Phe-Asn-Glu-Thr motif of exon 7 of the LH receptor causes male pseudohermaphroditism. European Journal of Endocrinology2002147597–608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    StavrouSS Zhu YS Cai LQ Katz MD Herrea C Defillo-Ricart M & Imperato-McGinley J. A novel mutation of the human luteinizing hormone receptor in 46 XY and 46 XX sisters. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism1998832091–2098.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    WuSM Hallermeier KM Laue LL Brain C Berry AC Grant DB Griffin JE Wilson JD Curtler GB Jr & Chan WY. Inactivation of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor by an insertional mutation in Leydig cell hypoplasia. Molecular Endocrinology1998121651–1660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    BrooksBP Moroi SE Downs CA Wiltse S Othman MI Semina EV & Richards JE. A novel mutation in the PITX2 gene in a family with Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome. Ophthalmic Genetics20042557–62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    BillerbeckAE Mendonca BB Pinto EM Madureira G Arnhold IJ & Bachega TA. Three novel mutations in CYP21 gene in Brazilian patients with the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency due to a founder effect. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism2002874314–4317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    WudySA Hartmann M Solleder C & Homoki J. Determination of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone in human plasma by routine isotope dilution mass spectrometry using benchtop gas chromatography-mass selective detection. Steroids200166759–762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    HiguchiR Krummel B & Saiki RK. A general method of in vitro preparation and specific mutagenesis of DNA fragments: study of protein and DNA interactions. Nucleic Acids Research1988167351–7367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    HallCV Jacob PE Ringold GM & Lee F. Expression and regulation of Escherichia coli lacZ gene fusions in mammalian cells. Journal of Molecular and Applied Genetics19832101–109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    GellerDH Auchus RJ Mendonca BB & Miller WL. The genetic and functional basis of isolated 1720-lyase deficiency. Nature Genetics199717201–205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    GeisslerWM Davis DL Wu L Bradshaw KD Patel S Mendonca BB Elliston KO Wilson JD Russell DW & Andersson S. Male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations of testicular 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3. Nature Genetics1994734–39.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    TwestenW Holterhus P Sippell WG Morlot M Schumacher H Schenk B & Hiort O. Clinical endocrine and molecular genetic findings in patients with 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency. Hormone Research20005326–31.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    GrumbachMM Hughes IA & Conte F. Disorders of sex differentiation. In Williams Textbook of Endocrinology edn 9 ch. 22 pp 942–943. Eds PR Larsen HM Kronenberg S Melmed & KS Polonsky. Philadelphia: W B Saunders Company 2003.

  • 22

    WitJM van Hooff CO Thijssen JH & Van den Brande JL. In vivo and in vitro studies in a 46XY phenotypically female infant with 17-ketosteroid reductase deficiency. Hormone Metabolism Research198820367–374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    ForestMG. Pattern of the response of testosterone and its precursors to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in relation to age in infants and children. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism197949132–137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    SchulzA Schoneberg T Paschke R Schultz G & Gudermann T. Role of the third intracellular loop for the activation of gonadotropin receptors. Molecular Endocrinology199913181–190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    WangZ Hipkin RW & Ascoli M. Progressive cytoplasmic tail truncations of the lutropin–choriogonadotropin receptor prevent agonist- or phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation impair agonist- or phorbol ester-induced desensitization and enhance agonist-induced receptor down-regulation. Molecular Endocrinology199610748–759.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    ZhangFP Poutanen M Wilbertz J & Huhtaniemi I. Normal prenatal but arrested postnatal sexual development of luteinizing hormone receptor knockout (LhRKO) mice. Molecular Endocrinology200115172–183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

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